THE EFFECT OF EXPOSURE TO THE ATOMIC BOMBS ON PREGNANCY TERMINATION IN HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI

By

J.V.NEEL AND W.J.SCHULL

DEPARTMENTOF HUMAN GENETICS UNIVERSITYOF MICHIGAN

in collaboration with

R.C.ANDERSON

W.H.BORGES

R.C.BREWER

S.KITAMURA

M.KODANI

D.J.MCDONALD

N.E.MORTON

M.SUZUKI

K.TAKESHIMA

W.J.WEDEMEYER

J.W.WOOD

S.W.WRIGHT

J.N.YAMAZAKI

ATOMIC BOMB CASUALTY COMMISSION

HIROSHIMA, JAPAN

Publication No. 461

NATIONAL ACADEMYOF SCIENCES—NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

WASHINGTON 25, D.C.

1956



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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study THE EFFECT OF EXPOSURE TO THE ATOMIC BOMBS ON PREGNANCY TERMINATION IN HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI By J.V.NEEL AND W.J.SCHULL DEPARTMENTOF HUMAN GENETICS UNIVERSITYOF MICHIGAN in collaboration with R.C.ANDERSON W.H.BORGES R.C.BREWER S.KITAMURA M.KODANI D.J.MCDONALD N.E.MORTON M.SUZUKI K.TAKESHIMA W.J.WEDEMEYER J.W.WOOD S.W.WRIGHT J.N.YAMAZAKI ATOMIC BOMB CASUALTY COMMISSION HIROSHIMA, JAPAN Publication No. 461 NATIONAL ACADEMYOF SCIENCES—NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL WASHINGTON 25, D.C. 1956

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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study LIBRARYOF CONGRESS CARD CATALOGUE No. 56–60060

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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study TABLE OF CONTENTS     I. BACKGROUND   1     1.1 THE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY   1     1.2 THE BEGINNINGS OF THE GENETICS PROGRAM   2     1.3 THE EARLY JAPANESE EFFORTS ALONG THESE LINES   2     1.4 SCIENTIFIC AND ADMINISTRATIVE CONSIDERATIONS SHAPING THE NATURE OF THE PROGRAM IN JAPAN   3     1.5 LOCAL CONSIDERATIONS SHAPING THE NATURE OF THE PROGRAM IN JAPAN   3     II. THE PLAN   5     2.1 PREGNANCY REGISTRATION   5     2.2 SPECIAL STUDIES ON ABNORMAL TERMINATIONS   9     2.3 THE “10-PER CENT SAMPLE”   9     2.4 THE ACCURACY AND REPRODUCIBILITY OF THE ANAMNESTIC DATA OBTAINED ON THE GENETICS SHORT FORM AND THE GENETICS LONG FORM.   9     2.5 THE AUTOPSY PROGRAM   14     2.6 THE COLLECTION OF DATA ON INFANTS AGED 9 MONTHS   14     2.7 THE PROCESSING OF THE DATA   18     2.8 THE STUDY OF SPONTANEOUS ABORTIONS   18     2.9 CYTOGENETIC EFFECTS OF THE ATOMIC BOMBS   18     2.10 THE DECISION TO DISCONTINUE WORK IN KURE   18     2.11 THE TERMINATION OF THE PROGRAM IN JANUARY, 1954   19     2.12 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS   19     III. A COMPARISON OF HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI   21     3.1 THE PEOPLING OF JAPAN; POSSIBLE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE INHABITANTS OF HONSHU AND KYUSHU   21     3.2 NON-JAPANESE ELEMENTS IN THE TWO CITIES   21     3.2.1 EARLY NAGASAKI CONTACTS WITH THE WEST   21     3.2.2 THE DUTCH ON DESHIMA   22     3.2.3 FROM THE REOPENING OF JAPAN TO WORLD WAR II   22     3.3 THE BIOLOGICAL INFLUENCE OF “FOREIGNERS” ON NAGASAKI AND HIROSHIMA   23     3.4 THE DIFFERENT IMPACTS OF THE ATOMIC BOMBS ON THE TWO CITIES.   28     3.4.1 TYPES OF BOMBS   28     3.4.2 EFFECTS OF THE BOMBS ON THE TWO CITIES   28     3.5 THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ABCC PROGRAM IN THE TWO CITIES   29     IV. THE CRITERIA OF RADIATION EMPLOYED IN THE STUDY   33     4.1 THE COMPLICATED NATURE OF THE INJURIES SUSTAINED BY SOME SURVIVORS; “DISASTER EFFECT” VS. “RADIATION EFFECT”   33     4.2 THE QUESTION OF RESIDUAL RADIATION FOLLOWING AN ATOMIC BOMBING   33

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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study     4.3 FACTORS DETERMINING THE NATURE OF THE RADIATION DATA COLLECTED IN THIS STUDY   34     4.3.1 THE SYNDROME OF RADIATION SICKNESS DUE TO WHOLE-BODY IRRADIATION   34     4.3.2 THE RELATION BETWEEN DISTANCE FROM THE HYPOCENTER AND RADIATION DOSAGE   36     4.3.3 THE ROLE OF SHIELDING IN DETERMINING RADIATION DOSE   36     4.4 THE TYPE OF RADIATION DATA COLLECTED IN THIS STUDY   38     4.5 THE RELATION BETWEEN DISTANCE, SHIELDING, AND SYMPTOMS IN THESE DATA   41     4.6 FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE VALIDITY OF THE RADIATION HISTORIES   44     4.7 DEFINITION OF RADIATION CATEGORIES   44     4.8 CONSIDERATIONS IN THE ESTIMATION OF THE AVERAGE AMOUNT OF RADIATION RECEIVED BY PERSONS IN EACH OF THE FIVE RADIATION CATEGORIES   45     4.8.1 THE ESTIMATED DISTANCE-DOSAGE CURVE   46     4.8.2 THE OBSERVATIONS OF THE JOINT COMMISSION REGARDING LEUCOPENIA   46     4.8.3 THE PROPORTION OF INDIVIDUALS PROTECTED BY VARIOUS TYPES OF SHIELDING   50     4.9 ESTIMATES OF THE AVERAGE AMOUNT OF IRRADIATION RECEIVED BY INDIVIDUALS IN THE VARIOUS EXPOSURE CATEGORIES   50     V. THE COMPARABILITY OF IRRADIATION SUBCLASSES   53     5.1 CONSANGUINITY   53     5.2 AGE AND PARITY   55     5.3 ECONOMIC STATUS   59     5.4 FREQUENCY OF POSITIVE SEROLOGICAL TEST FOR SYPHILIS   61     5.5 FREQUENCY OF INDUCED ABORTIONS AND OF DILATATION AND CURETTAGE OF THE UTERUS (D AND C)   61     5.6 THE FREQUENCY OF REPEAT REGISTRATIONS   63     5.7 PARENTAL COOPERATION   63     5.8 LATE SEQUELAE OF EXPOSURE TO THE BOMBS   69     5.9 THE CHANGING PROPORTION OF CONTROL AND IRRADIATED FROM YEAR TO YEAR   69     5.10 THE BACKGROUND OF GROUP 1 INDIVIDUALS   71     5.11 SUMMARY   71     VI. STATISTICAL METHODS   72     6.1 THE PROBLEM AND THE GENERAL PLAN   72     6.2 INDICATORS OF RADIATION DAMAGE AND THE PROBLEM OF NON-OVERLAPPING MEASUREMENTS   72     6.3 CONCOMITANT VARIATION   73     6.4 REJECTED OBSERVATIONS   77     6.5 THE ANALYSIS OF THE ATTRIBUTE DATA   78     6.6 THE ANALYSIS OF THE MEASUREMENT DATA   82     6.7 SOME FURTHER PROBLEMS   85     6.8 THE USE OF EXPOSED PERSONS AS CONTROLS   86     6.9 PRESENTATION OF MATERIAL   87     VII. ANALYSIS OF THE SEX RATIO DATA   88     7.1 THE TRAIT   88     7.2 THE GENETIC ARGUMENT FOR RADIATION-INDUCED CHANGES IN THE SEX RATIO   88

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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study     7.3 CONCOMITANT VARIATION INFLUENCING THE INDICATOR   89     7.4 THE DATA   89     7.5 SUMMARY   96     VIII. ANALYSIS OF THE MALFORMATION DATA   99     8.1 THE TRAIT   99     8.2 RELIABILITY OF DIAGNOSIS   99     8.3 THE GENETIC ARGUMENT FOR RADIATION-INDUCED CHANGES   104     8.4 CONCOMITANT VARIATION INFLUENCING THE INDICATOR   105     8.5 THE “AT-BIRTH” DATA   110     8.6 THE “9-MONTHS” DATA   115     8.7 ANALYSIS BY SPECIFIC MALFORMATION TYPE   117     8.8 SUMMARY   117     IX. ANALYSIS OF THE STILLBIRTH DATA   118     9.1 THE TRAIT   118     9.2 THE GENETIC ARGUMENT FOR RADIATION-INDUCED CHANGES   118     9.3 CONCOMITANT VARIATION KNOWN TO AFFECT THE STILLBIRTH RATE   118     9.4 THE DATA   124     9.5 SUMMARY   129     X. THE ANALYSIS OF THE BIRTHWEIGHT DATA   131     10.1 THE TRAIT   131     10.2 THE GENETIC ARGUMENT FOR IRRADIATION EFFECTS   131     10.3 CONCOMITANT VARIABLES KNOWN TO AFFECT BIRTHWEIGHT   131     10.4 THE DATA AND THEIR ANALYSIS   132     10.5 SUMMARY   150     XI. ANALYSIS OF THE DATA CONCERNING DEATH DURING THE NINE-MONTH PERIOD FOLLOWING DELIVERY   151     11.1 THE TRAIT   151     11.2 THE GENETIC ARGUMENT FOR RADIATION-INDUCED CHANGES IN THE NEONATAL DEATH RATE   151     11.3 CONCOMITANT VARIABLES KNOWN TO INFLUENCE THE OCCURRENCE OF A NEONATAL DEATH   152     11.4 THE DATA   157     11.5 SUMMARY   162     XII. THE ANALYSIS OF THE ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA   164     12.1 THE MEASUREMENTS OBTAINED AT NINE MONTHS   164     12.2 THE GENETIC ARGUMENT FOR IRRADIATION EFFECTS   164     12.3 CONCOMITANT VARIABLES KNOWN TO AFFECT GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT DURING THE FIRST YEAR OF LIFE   164     12.4 THE DATA   165     12.4.1 THE MULTIVARIATE MEANS   168     12.4.2 THE EQUALITY OF THE GENERALIZED VARIANCES   175     12.4.3 WITHIN-CELL HETEROGENEITY   179     12.5 SUMMARY   179     XIII. THE AUTOPSY FINDINGS   184     13.1 THE RANDOMNESS OF THE HIROSHIMA AUTOPSIES   184     13.2 THE DATA   187     13.3 SUMMARY   191

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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study     XIV. RECAPITULATION   192     14.1 THE FINDINGS   192     14.2 THE QUESTION OF EVALUATING THE OVER-ALL DIRECTION OF THE INDICATORS   196     14.3 THE CONFIDENCE LIMITS DETERMINED BY THESE OBSERVATIONS   196     14.4 A RÉSUMÉ OF WORK ON MAMMALIAN MATERIAL PERTINENT TO THE INTERPRETATION OF THESE FINDINGS   199     14.4.1 EFFECTS ON SEX RATIO   200     14.4.2 EFFECTS ON MALFORMATION FREQUENCY   201     14.4.3 EFFECTS ON STILLBIRTH FREQUENCY   202     14.4.4 EFFECTS ON BIRTHWEIGHT   203     14.4.5 EFFECTS ON NEONATAL DEATH RATES   203     14.4.6 EFFECTS ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT   203     14.5 INTERPRETATION OF THE FINDINGS   203     XV. PERMISSIBLE INFERENCES   205     15.1 BASIC DATA NECESSARY TO REACHING PERMISSIBLE INFERENCES   205     15.2 THE SPONTANEOUS MUTATION RATE IN MAN   205     15.3 THE RADIATION-INDUCED MUTATION RATE IN MAN   210     15.4 ESTIMATES OF THE NUMBER OF GENES IN MAN   212     15.5 THE “ACCUMULATION FACTOR”   212     15.6 THE NATURE OF NATURAL SELECTION   213     15.7 CONCLUDING REMARKS   216      APPENDIX   218      PROCEDURE FOR CODING GENETICS SHORT-FORM QUESTIONNAIRES   218      CODING INSTRUCTIONS FOR GENETICS FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONNAIRES   221      CODING INSTRUCTIONS FOR PEDIATRICS FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONNAIRE   225      REFERENCES   230

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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study LIST OF TABLES Chapter II  TABLE 2.1   Per Cent of All Registrations (Including Those Involving Parental Consanguinity) with At Least One Parent Heavily Exposed (Radiation Categories 4, 5)   19 Chapter III  TABLE 3.1   Population Figures by Nationality for Foreigners Resident in Nagasaki City between 1864 and 1870   23  TABLE 3.2   The “Foreign” and Total Population of Nagasaki City, and the “Foreign” Population of Nagasaki Prefecture, 1897–1923   24  TABLE 3.3   The Ethnic Composition of the Foreign Component of Nagasaki City, for the Years 1910 and 1930   25  TABLE 3.4   The Age Composition and Ethnic Status of the Total Foreign Population of Nagasaki in 1920, as well as of the Four Principal Ethnic Groups in This Population   26 Chapter IV  TABLE 4.1   Frequency of Occurrence of Certain Symptoms in Persons Alive 20 or More Days Following the Atomic Bombings, as Related to Distance from the Hypocenter   35  TABLE 4.2   The Effectiveness of Shielding in Protecting against Radiation Sickness in Hiroshima   37  TABLE 4.3   Distribution by Distance and Shielding of Husbands of Wives Registering Pregnancies with the Genetics Program: Hiroshima   38  TABLE 4.4   Distribution by Distance and Shielding of Wives Registering Pregnancies with the Genetics Program: Hiroshima   39  TABLE 4.5   Distribution by Distance and Shielding of Husbands of Wives Registering Pregnancies with the Genetics Program: Nagasaki   40  TABLE 4.6   Distribution by Distance and Shielding of Wives Registering Pregnancies with the Genetics Program: Nagasaki   41  TABLE 4.7   The Definition of “Exposure Categories” to be Employed in This Analysis.   44  TABLE 4.8   Distribution of Registered Births by Parental Exposure   45  TABLE 4.9   The Findings of the Joint Commission in Hiroshima with Regard to the Occurrence of Epilation, Petechiae, and Leucopenia in Persons Falling into Various Exposure Categories   47  TABLE 4.10   The Exposure Categories Defined by the Joint Commission, to be Applied to the Interpretation of Table 4.9   47  TABLE 4.11   The Distribution of Leucocyte Values in Hiroshima Japanese Who Failed to Develop Epilation, Petechiae, or Gingivitis Following the Bombing, in Relation to Distance from Hypocenter and Type of Shielding   48  TABLE 4.12   Proportions of Parents Exposed in the 1,800–2,500 Meter Ring Who Reported Various Types of Shielding   50 Chapter V  TABLE 5.1   Frequency of Consanguineous Marriages (First Cousins, First Cousins Once Removed, Second Cousins) by City and Parental Exposure   54  TABLE 5.2   Chi-Square Analysis of the Frequency of Consanguineous Marriages by City and Parental Exposure   55

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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study  TABLE 5.3   Mean Maternal Age by City and Parental Exposure   56  TABLE 5.4   Analysis of Variance: Mother's Age by City and Parental Exposure   57  TABLE 5.5   The Distribution of Mean Squares for Maternal Age by City, Sex of Infant, and Parental Exposure   57  TABLE 5.6   Mean Parity by City and Parental Exposure   58  TABLE 5.7   Analysis of Variance: Parity by City and Parental Exposure   59  TABLE 5.8   The Distribution of Mean Squares for Parity by City, Sex of Infant, and Parental Exposure   59  TABLE 5.9   Economic Status by City and Parental Exposure   60  TABLE 5.10   Chi-Square Analysis of the Distribution of Economic Statuses by City and Parental Exposure   61  TABLE 5.11   Frequency of Positive Serology by Parental Exposure, City, and Group: “Zero” Parents Only   62  TABLE 5.12   Chi-Square Analysis of the Frequency of Positive Serologies by City and Parental Exposure   63  TABLE 5.13   Frequency of Mothers Reporting One or More Induced Abortions by Parental Exposure, City, and Time   64  TABLE 5.14   Chi-Square Analysis of the Frequency of Mothers Reporting One or More Induced Abortions by Parental Exposure, City, and Time   66  TABLE 5.15   Frequency of “Dilatation and Curettage” by Parental Exposure and City: Zero Terminations   67  TABLE 5.16   Chi-Square Analysis of the Frequency of “Dilatation and Curettage” by Parental Exposure and City: Zero Terminations   68  TABLE 5.17   Mean Number of Registered Pregnancies per Mother by Parental Exposure and City   68  TABLE 5.18   Incidence of Leukemia in the Hiroshima Survivors of the Atomic Bombing as Related to Distance from the Hypocenter and the Presence of Severe Radiation Complaints (After Moloney and Kastenbaum, 1955)   70  TABLE 5.19   The Frequency of Malformations by Year among the Offspring of Parents Neither of Whom Was Exposed to the Atomic Bombs   70  TABLE 5.20   The Frequency of Stillbirths by Year among the Offspring of Parents Neither of Whom Was Exposed to the Atomic Bombs   71 Chapter VI  TABLE 6.1   The Number of Infants Rejected from the Study, Tabulated by Reason for Rejection   77  TABLE 6.2   An Accounting of the Number of Observations Considered at Representative Stages in the Analysis of the “At-Birth” Data, and the Number of Rejected Observations with the Cause of Rejection   79  TABLE 6.3   An Accounting of the Number of Observations Considered at Representative Stages in the Analysis of the “9-Months” Data and the Number of Rejected Observations with the Cause of Rejection   79 Chapter VII  TABLE 7.1   The Frequency of Male Births by Parental Exposure and City   90  TABLE 7.2   Chi-Square Analysis of the Frequency of Male Births by City and Parental Exposure   91  TABLE 7.3   Selected Comparisons Regarding the Effect of Irradiation on Sex Ratio   92  TABLE 7.4   National Statistics of Livebirths, 1935–1952   94  TABLE 7.5   The Frequency of Male Births among Infants Born After April, 1946 but Prior to June, 1948, by Parental Exposure   95  TABLE 7.6   Chi-Square Analysis of the Frequency of Male Births among Infants Born After April, 1946 but Prior to June, 1948   95

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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study  TABLE 7.7   The Frequency of Male Births by Parental Exposure and City, 1954– 1955   97  TABLE 7.8   Chi-square Analysis of the Frequency of Male Births during the Years 1948–1955 by Time of Birth, City, and Parental Exposure   98 Chapter VIII  TABLE 8.1   An Alphabetical Listing of Those Malformations Observed in This Study which Occurring Alone or in Combination with One Another Were Graded as Major Congenital Defect   100  TABLE 8.2   The Types and Frequency of Various Major Congenital Malformations Observed at the Tokyo Red Cross Maternity Hospital during the Years 1922 through 1940   101  TABLE 8.3   A Comparison, for Hiroshima and Nagasaki, of the Findings as Regards Major Congenital Malformation in Infants Examined at Approximately Age 9 Months, and in Those Same Infants When Examined Shortly After Birth   103  TABLE 8.4   The Effect of Maternal Age at Fixed Parity on the Frequency of Malformed Infants   106  TABLE 8.5   The Effect of Maternal Parity at Fixed Age on the Frequency of Malformed Infants   108  TABLE 8.6   The Frequency of Malformed Infants by Parental Exposure, Sex of Infant, and City   111  TABLE 8.7   The Frequency of Malformed Infants by Parental Exposure, City, and Maternal Age   113  TABLE 8.8   Chi-Square Analysis of the Frequency of Congenitally Malformed Infants by Sex, City, and Parental Exposure   114  TABLE 8.9   Chi-Square Analysis of the Frequency of Congenitally Malformed Infants by City, Maternal Age, and Parental Exposure   114  TABLE 8.10   The Distribution of Frequency of Malformed Infants Classified by Mother's Age and Exposure Only   115  TABLE 8.11   Chi-Square Analysis of the Effect of Mother's Exposure on the Frequency of Malformed Infants at Each of Five Different Age Levels   115  TABLE 8.12   The Distribution by Maternal Exposure and Parity of Malformed Infants Born to Mothers of Ages 15–20   115  TABLE 8.13   The Distribution of Frequency of Malformed Infants Classified by Mother's Age and Father's Exposure Only   115  TABLE 8.14   The Frequency of Malformed Infants among All Infants Re-examined at 9 Months of Age, by City and Parental Exposure   116  TABLE 8.15   Chi-Square Analysis of the Frequency of Malformed Infants at 9 Months of Age by City and Parental Exposure   116  TABLE 8.16   The Distribution by Maternal Exposure of the Seven Most Common Major Congenital Malformations in the Japanese, Exclusive of Congenital Heart Disease   116 Chapter IX  TABLE 9.1   Congenital Syphilis among Living Infants Born in Nagasaki in 1951: Incidence and Relation to Maternal Age (After Wright, S.W. et al., 1952)   119  TABLE 9.2   The Effect of Maternal Age at Fixed Parity on the Frequency of Stillborn Infants   120  TABLE 9.3   The Effect of Maternal Parity at Fixed Age on the Frequency of Stillborn Infants   122  TABLE 9.4   Frequency of Stillbirths by Sex, Parental Exposure and City   125

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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study  TABLE 9.5   Chi-Square Analysis of the Frequency of Stillbirths by Sex, Parental Exposure and City   127  TABLE 9.6   The Frequency of Stillbirths by Parental Exposure, City and Parity   128  TABLE 9.7   Chi-Square Analysis of the Frequency of Stillbirths by Parental Exposure, City and Parity   129  TABLE 9.8   The Frequency of Stillbirths among Firstborn Infants by City and Paternal Exposure   129  TABLE 9.9   The Frequency of Stillbirths among Firstborn Infants by Paternal Exposure and Maternal Age   130 Chapter X  TABLE 10.1   Mean Birthweight by Parental Exposure, Sex and City   134  TABLE 10.2   Analysis of Variance of Birthweight by Parental Exposure and City   135  TABLE 10.3   The Distribution by Parental Exposure of the Weighted Mean Squares of Deviations   136  TABLE 10.4   Analysis of Covariance of Birthweights: Males, Hiroshima   136  TABLE 10.5   Tests of the Significance and Homogeneity of the Regressions of Birthweight on Maternal Age and Parity: Males, Hiroshima   137  TABLE 10.6   Analysis of Variance on the Adjusted Birthweight Means: Males, Hiroshima   138  TABLE 10.7   The Adjusted Birthweight Means: Males, Hiroshima   138  TABLE 10.8   The Residual Mean Squares from the Individual Cell Regressions: Males, Hiroshima   139  TABLE 10.9   Analysis of Covariance of Birthweights: Females, Hiroshima   139  TABLE 10.10   Tests of the Significance and Homogeneity of the Regressions of Birthweight on Maternal Age and Parity: Females, Hiroshima   140  TABLE 10.11   Analysis of Variance on the Adjusted Birthweight Means: Females, Hiroshima   140  TABLE 10.12   The Adjusted Birthweight Means: Females, Hiroshima   141  TABLE 10.13   The Residual Mean Squares from the Individual Cell Regressions: Females, Hiroshima   141  TABLE 10.14   Analysis of Covariance of Birthweights: Males, Nagasaki   142  TABLE 10.15   Tests of the Significance and Homogeneity of the Regressions of Birthweight on Maternal Age and Parity: Males, Nagasaki   142  TABLE 10.16   Analysis of Variance on the Adjusted Birthweight Means: Males, Nagasaki   143  TABLE 10.17   The Adjusted Birthweight Means: Males, Nagasaki   143  TABLE 10.18   The Residual Mean Squares from the Individual Cell Regressions: Males, Nagasaki   144  TABLE 10.19   Analysis of Covariance of Birthweights: Females, Nagasaki   144  TABLE 10.20   Tests of the Significance and Homogeneity of the Regressions of Birthweight on Maternal Age and Parity: Females, Nagasaki   145  TABLE 10.21   Analysis of Variance on the Adjusted Birthweight Means: Females, Nagasaki   145  TABLE 10.22   The Adjusted Birthweight Means: Females, Nagasaki   146  TABLE 10.23   The Residual Mean Squares from the Individual Cell Regressions: Females, Nagasaki   146  TABLE 10.24   A Summary of the Salient Findings of the Covariance Analysis   147  TABLE 10.25   The Distribution by Parental Exposure of the Residual Mean Squares After Removal of Variation Due to Year of Birth of the Infant: Males, Hiroshima   149  TABLE 10.26   The Distribution by Parental Exposure of the Residual Mean Squares After Removal of Variation Due to Year of Birth of the Infant: Females, Hiroshima   149

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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study  TABLE 10.27   The Distribution by Parental Exposure of the Residual Mean Squares After Removal of Variation Due to Year of Birth of the Infant: Males, Nagasaki   149  TABLE 10.28   The Distribution by Parental Exposure of the Residual Mean Squares After Removal of Variation Due to Year of Birth of the Infant: Females, Nagasaki   149 Chapter XI  TABLE 11.1   The Effect of Maternal Age at Fixed Parity on the Frequency of Neonatal Deaths   154  TABLE 11.2   The Effect of Parity at Fixed Maternal Age on the Frequency of Neonatal Deaths   156  TABLE 11.3   The Frequency of Neonatal Deaths by Parental Exposure, City and Sex of Infant   158  TABLE 11.4   The Frequency of Neonatal Deaths by Parental Exposure, City and Parity   160  TABLE 11.5   Chi-Square Analysis of the Frequency of Neonatal Deaths by Parental Exposure, City and Sex   161  TABLE 11.6   Chi-Square Analysis of the Frequency of Neonatal Deaths by Parental Exposure, City and Parity   162  TABLE 11.7   The Frequency of Deaths between Birth and Nine Months of Age by Parental Exposure and City   163  TABLE 11.8   Analysis of the Frequency of Deaths between Birth and Nine Months of Age, by Parental Exposure and City   163 Chapter XII  TABLE 12.1   Distribution of Mean Weight in Decagrams at 9 Months of Age by City, Sex and Parental Exposure   165  TABLE 12.2   Distribution of Mean Height in Millimeters at 9 Months of Age by City, Sex and Parental Exposure   166  TABLE 12.3   Distribution of Mean Head Girth in Millimeters at 9 Months of Age by City, Sex and Parental Exposure   167  TABLE 12.4   Distribution of Mean Chest Girth in Millimeters at 9 Months of Age by City, Sex and Parental Exposure   168  TABLE 12.5   Analysis of Dispersion (All Exposure Cells). (a) Sums of Squares and Cross Products of Deviations for the Two-Factor Interactions, (b) Mean Squares for Individual Analyses of Variance   169  TABLE 12.6   Analysis of Dispersion (All Exposure Cells). (a) Sums of Squares and Cross Products of Deviations for Main Effects and Additivity. (b) Mean Squares for Individual Analyses of Variance (on Main Effects and Additivity). (c) Analysis of Dispersion Test, Wilks' (Using Bartlett's Approximation)   170  TABLE 12.7   Estimates of Constants and Their Variances for Tests of Equality   171  TABLE 12.8   A Summary of the Significance of Tests Comparing All Possible Pairs of Exposure for Each Parent with Respect to the Variables w, x, y, and z   172  TABLE 12.9   Analysis of Dispersion (Only Those Cells Where Both Parents Were Exposed), (a) Sums of Squares and Cross Products of Deviations for the Two-Factor Interactions, (b) Mean Squares for Individual Analyses of Variance (on Two-Factor Interactions)   173  TABLE 12.10   Analysis of Dispersion (Only Those Cells Where Both Parents Were Exposed), (a) Sums of Squares and Products of Deviations for Main Effects and Additivity. (b) Mean Squares for Individual Analyses of Variance for Main Effects and Additivity   174

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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study HOUSE, V.L. 1953b. The interaction of mutants affecting venation in Drosophila melanogaster. II. Additive and pattern effects of combinations of Hairless, engrailed, and cubitus interruptus. Genetics38:309–327. HULSE, F.S. 1943. Physical types among the Japanese. In: Coon, C.S. and Andrews, J.M. IV., editors. Studies in the Anthropology of Oceania and Asia. Papers of thePeabody Museum20:122–133. IVES, P.T. 1950. The importance of mutation rate genes in evolution. Evolution4:236– 252. IVES, P.T. 1954. Radiation-induced mutation rates in Drosophila and mice. Amer. Nat.88:361–364. IZUMI, TETSU 1921. Kokusai-ho gairon (Outline of the International Law). Tokyo: Yuhi-kaku. Pp. xxiii and 591. JAPAN SCIENCE COUNCIL. 1951. Summary Report on Atomic Bomb Casualties and Damages.Translated and reproduced by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. 140 pp. KAEMPFER, E. 1728. The History of Japan,translated by J.G.Scheuchzer. New York: The Macmillan Co. 1906. 3 vols., pp. xc and 337; pp. x and 397; and pp. ix and 386. KALMUS, H., METRAKOS, J.D., and SILVERBERG, M. 1952. Sex ratio of offspring from irradiated male mice. Science116:274–275. KARN, M.N., and PENROSE, L.S. 1951. Birthweight and gestation time in relation to maternal age, parity, and infant survival. Ann. Eugen.16:147–164. KENDALL, M.G. 1946. The Advanced Theoryof Statistics. Vols. I and II. London: Charles Griffin and Co., Ltd. Pp. xii and 457; pp. vii and 521. KEOSIAN, J. 1955. Speculations on hazards of exposure to radiations. Science122:586– 587. KERKIS, J.J. 1935. The preponderance of “physiological mutations.”Summ. Commun. XV Intern. Physiol. Congr.(Leningrad-Moscow) (quoted from Muller, 1954). Pp. 198–200. KITANO, KOJI. 1911. Nagasaki kyodo shi (History of Nagasaki). Nagasaki: Nagasaki Shogakko Shokuin-kai. 354 pp. (see p. 162). KIYONO, KENJI. 1949. The origin of the Japanese race. Kagaku Asahi, August (in Japanese). KOYA, Y. 1953. The program for family planning in Japan. Eug. News38:1–3. KOYA, Y. 1954. A study of induced abortion in Japan and its significance. Milbank Mem.Fund Quart.32:282–293. KROOTH, R.S. 1955. Some problems in maternal age. Am. J.Hum. Genet.7:147– 162. LANDTMAN, B. 1948. Relationship between maternal conditions during pregnancy and congenital malformations. Arch. Dis.Child.23:237–246. LANGE, R.D., MOLONEY, W.C., and YAMAWAKI, T. 1954. Leukemia in atomic bomb survivors. I. General observations. Blood9:574–585. LANGE, R.D., WRIGHT, S.W., TOMONAGA, M., KURASAKI, H., MATSUOKA, S., and MATSUNAGA, H. 1955. Refractory anemia occurring in survivors of the atomic bombing in Nagasaki, Japan. Blood10:312– 324. LASKER, G.W. 1946. Migration and physical differentiation. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.4:273–300. LEFEVRE, G., JR. 1955. Mutation isoalleles at the yellow locus in Drosophila melanogaster.Genetics40:374–387. LERNER, I.M. 1955. Buffered genotypes and improvement in egg production. Amer.Nat.89:29–34. LEROY, G.V. 1950. Hematology of atomic bomb casualties. Arch. Int. Med.86:691– 710. LORENZ, E., and collaborators. 1954. Effects of long-continued total-body gamma irradiation on mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits. Chaps. I, II, III, IV, V, and VI. In: Biological Effects of External X andGamma Radiation (R.E.Zirkle, ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co.Pp. xxvi and 530. LOS ALAMOS SCIENTIFIC LABORATORY. 1950. The Effects of Atomic Weapons. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Printing Office. Pp. x and 456. LOWE, C.R., and MCKEOWN, T. 1950. The sex ratio of human births related to maternal age. Brit. J.Soc. Med.4:75–85. MACHT, S.H., and LAWRENCE, P.S. 1955. National survey of congenital malformations resulting from exposure to roentgen radiation. Amer. J.Roent.73:442–466.

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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study MACMAHON, B., and GORDON, J.E. 1953. Epidemiologic inferences derived from maternal age. Am. J.Med. Sci.226:326–349. MATSUMOTO, Y.S. 1954. Patient rapport in Hiroshima. Amer. J.Nursing54:69–72. MATSUMURA, A. 1925. Cephalic index and stature of Japanese and their local differences . Journal of Faculty of Science(Tokyo University). Section V; Vol. I; Part I; pp. 1–312. MCINTOSH, R., MERRITT, K.K., RICHARDS, M.R., SAMUELS, M.H., and BELLOWS, M.T. 1954. The incidence of congenital malformations: a study of 5,694 pregnancies . Pediatrics14:505–522. MILLIS, J. 1952. A study of the effect of nutrition on fertility and the outcome of pregnancy in Singapore in 1947 and 1950. Med. J.Malaya6:157–172. MILLIS, J. and SENG, Y.P. 1954. The effect of age and parity of the mother on birthweight of the offspring. Ann. Hum. Genet.19:58–73. MOLONEY, W.C., and LANGE, R.D. 1954. Leukemia in atomic bomb survivors. II. Observations on early phases of leukemia. Blood9:663–685. MOLONEY, W.C., and KASTENBAUM, M.A. 1955. Leukemogenic effects of ionizing radiation on atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima City. Science121:308–309. MORTON, N.E. 1953. Present Status of the Genetics Analysis(mimeographed publication of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission) . MORTON, N.E. 1955. The inheritance of human birthweight. Ann. Hum. Genet.20: 125–134. MORTON, N.E.Empirical risks in consanguineous marriage: II. Birthweight, gestation time, and measurements of infants(in manuscript). MOURANT, A.E. 1954. The Distribution of theHuman Blood Groups.Springfield: C.C. Thomas. Pp. xxi and 438. MULLER, H.J. 1934. Radiation genetics. Proc.IV Intern. Radiologen Kongr.2:100–102. MULLER, H.J. 1935. On the dimensions of chromosomes and genes in Dipteran salivary glands . Amer. Nat.69:405–411. MULLER, H.J. 1950. Our load of mutations. Am. J.Hum. Genet.2:111–176. MULLER, H.J. 1954. The nature of the genetic effects produced by radiation. In: RadiationBiology (A.Hollaender, ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co.Vol. I, pp. 351– 453. MULLER, H.J. 1955. How radiation changes the genetic constitution. Bull. Atomic Scientists11:329–338. MULLER, H.J., VALENCIA, J.I., and VALENCIA, R.M. 1950. The frequency of spontaneous mutations at individual loci in Drosophila . Genetics35:125–126. MUNRO, N.G. 1908. Prehistoric Japan. Yokohama. Pp. xvii and 705. MURDOCH, J. 1926. A History of Japan. New York: Greenberg. 3 vols. MURPHY, D.P. 1928. Ovarian irradiation, its effect on the health of subsequent children . Surg., Gyn., and Obst.47:201–215. MURPHY, D.P. 1947. Congenital Malformations.Second edition. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Co.127 pp. MYERS, R.J. 1954. The effect of age of mother and birth order on sex ratio at birth . Milbank Mem. Fund Quart.32:275–281. NACHTSHEIM, H. 1954. Die Mutationsrate menschlicher Gene. Naturwissen17:385– 392. NAGASAKI-SHI SHOGAKKO SHOKUIN-KAI. 1925. Meiji Ishinigo no Nagasaki (Nagasakisince the Restoration).692 pp. (see pp. 86–89). NAIKAKU TOKEI-KYOKU (Cabinet Statistical Bureau)Census Report. 1930. Vol. 4, p. 40. NAIKAKU TOKEI-KYOKU. NIHON TEIKOKU TOKEI NENKAN (JAPANESE EMPIRE STATISTICAL ANNUAL) . 1899–1938. Nos. 19– 58. NEEL, J.V. 1941. Studies on the interaction of mutations affecting the chaetae of Drosophila melanogaster. I. The interaction of hairy, polychaetoid, and Hairy wing. Genetics26:52–68. NEEL, J.V. 1942. A study of a case of high mutation rate in Drosophila melanogaster.Genetics27:519–536. NEEL, J.V. 1943. Studies on the interaction of mutations affecting the chaetae of Drosophila melanogaster. II. The relation of character expression to size in flies homozygous for polychaetoid, hairy, Hairy wing, and the combinations of these factors. Genetics28:49–68. NEEL, J.V. 1952. The study of human mutation rates. Amer. Nat.86:129–144.

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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study NEEL, J.V., and FALLS, H.F. 1951. The rate of mutation of the gene responsible for retinoblastoma in man. Science114:419– 422. NEEL, J.V., KODANI, M., BREWER, R., and ANDERSON, R.C. 1949. The incidence of consanguineous matings in Japan. Am. J.Hum. Genet.1:156–178. NEEL, J.V., SCHULL, W.J., MCDONALD, D.J., MORTON, N.E., KODANI, M., TAKESHIMA, K., ANDERSON, R.C., WOOD, J., BREWER, R., WRIGHT, S., YAMAZAKI, J., SUZUKI, M., and KITAMURA, S. 1953. The effect of exposure to the atomic bombs on pregnancy termination in Hiroshima and Nagasaki: Preliminary report. Science118: 537–541. NEEL, J.V., and SCHULL, W.J. 1954. HumanHeredity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 361 pp. NICKSON, J.J. 1951. Blood changes in human beings following total-body irradiation. National Nuclear Energy SeriesIV–20: 308–337. NIXON, W.C.W. 1950. Social factors in obstetrics. In: Modern Trends in Obstetricsand Gynecology. (K.Bowes, ed.). New York: Paul B.Hoeber. Pp. 201–218. NOVITSKI, E. 1953. The dependence of the secondary sex ratio in humans on the age of the father. Science117:531–533. OUGHTERSON, A.W., LEROY, G.V., LIEBOW, A.A., HAMMOND, E.C., BARNETT, H.L., ROSENBAUM, J.D., and SCHNEIDER, B.A. 1951. Medical effects of atomic bombs: The report of the Joint Commission for the Investigation of the Effects of the Atomic Bomb in Japan . In 5 vols. Issued by Technical Information Service, U.S. Atomic Energy Comm., Oak Ridge, Tenn. PARKES, A.S. 1925. The effects on fertility and sex-ratio of sub-sterility exposures to X-rays. Proc. Roy Soc. Lond.,Series B, 98: 415–436. PEARSON, E.S. 1936. The efficiency of statistical tools and a criterion for the rejection of outlying observations. Biometrika28:308– 320. PENROSE, L.S. 1939. Maternal age, order of birth and developmental abnormalities. J. Ment. Sci.85:1141–1150. PENROSE, L.S. 1950. Propagation of the unfit. Lancet2:425–427. POPULATION REFERENCE BUREAU, INC. 1953. Falling birth rates: what do they mean?Population Bull.9:13–23. PRINDLE, R.A., INGALLS, T.H., and KIRKWOOD, J.B. 1955. Maternal hydramnios and congenital anomalies of the central nervous system. N.E.J.Med.252:555– 561. PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE SECTION, GHQ, SCAP. 1948, 1949, 1950. PublicHealth and Welfare in Japan. RAO, C.R. 1952. Advanced Statistical Methodsin Biometric Research. New York: Wiley and Sons, Inc.Pp. xvii and 390. RAO, C.R. 1955. Analysis of dispersion for multiply classified data with unequal numbers in cells. Sankya15:253–280. RECORD, R.G., and MCKEOWN, T. 1949–1950. Congenital malformations of the central nervous system. Parts I–III . Brit. J.Soc.Med.3:183–219; 4:26–50; 4:217–220. ROBSON, E.B. 1955. Birthweight in cousins. Ann. Hum. Genet.19:262–268. ROY, S.N., and KASTENBAUM, M.A. 1956. A generalization of analysis of variance and multivariate analysis to data based on frequencies in qualitative categories or class intervals . Ann. Math. Stat.27:749–757. RUSSELL, W.L. 1954. Genetic effects of radiation in mammals. In: Radiation Biology (A.Hollaender, ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co.Vol. I, pp. 825–859. RUSSELL, W.L. 1956. Comparison of X-ray-induced mutation rates in Drosophila and mice . Amer. Nat.90:67–80. SALBER, E.J., and BRADSHAW, E.S. 1953. Birthweights of South African babies. IV. Association with maternal age. Brit. J.Prev. Soc. Med.7:20–23. SANSOM, G.B. 1943. Japan: A Short CulturalHistory. New York: D. Appleton-Century Co.Pp. xviii and 554. SASANO, AKIKUNI. 1921. Nihon Kokusai shiho(Japan's International Private Laws). Tokyo: Nichiei-do. 247 pp. (see p. 162). SCHULL, W.J. 1953. The effect of Christianity on consanguinity in Nagasaki. Amer. Anthrop.55:74–88. SCHULL, W.J.Empirical risks in consanguineous marriage: I. Sex ratio, malformation, stillbirth, and neonatal and infantile death (in manuscript). SCHULTZ, J. 1936. Radiation and the study of mutations in animals. In: Biological Effects

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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study WILSON, R.R. 1951. Report on nuclear radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, submitted to the Committee on Atomic Casualties of the National Research Council . WISHART, J. 1950. Field Trials II. The Analysisof Covariance.Technical Communication No. 15. Commonwealth Bureau of Plant Breeding and Genetics . Cambridge (see p. 35). WOODBURY, L.A. 1953. Analysis of the relationship of shielding and distance factors to radiation cataracts. ABCC Semi-AnnualReport, January 1, 1953-June 30, 1953, Part 1, Appendix 15. WOOLLEY, W.A. 1881. Historical notes on Nagasaki. Asiatic Soc. of Japan, Transactions.9:125–151. WORCESTER, J., STEVENSON, S.S., and RICE, R.G. 1950. 677 congenially malformed infants and associated gestational characteristics. II. Parental factors. Pediatrics6: 208–222. WRIGHT, S. 1949. Estimates of the amounts of melanin in the hair of diverse genotypes of the guinea pig, from transformation of empirical grades. Genetics34:245–271. WRIGHT, S. 1950. Discussion on population genetics and radiation. J.Cell, and Comp.Physiol.,35, Suppl. 1, pp. 187–204. WRIGHT, S.W., et al. 1952. A study of the incidence of congenital syphilis among living Japanese infants. ABCC Semi-AnnualReport, January 1, 1952–June 30, 1952. YATES, F. 1934. The analysis of multiple classifications with unequal numbers in the different classes. J.Am. Stat. Assoc.29:51– 66. YERUSHALMY, J. 1938. Neonatal mortality by order of birth and age of parents. Am. J.Hyg.28:244–270. YERUSHALMY, J. 1945. On the interval between successive births and its effect on survival of infant. I. An indirect method of study. Hum. Biol.17:65–106.

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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study SUBJECT INDEX Abortions, reporting of, 9 spontaneous, 18 therapeutic (induced), 19, 61, 76 Acetabulum, dysplasia of, 15, 102, 104 “Accumulation factor,” in man, 212 Age, maternal allowance for, in analysis, 76 differences in irradiation subclasses, 55 Age effects, maternal on birthweight, 132, 148 on death during first 9 months, 152 on growth and development, 165 on malformation frequency, 105, 189 on sex ratio, 89 on stillbirth frequency, 119 Ainu, 21 Americans, in Nagasaki, 23 Analytic methods, general attribute data “interactions,”78, 162 “main effects,”78, 162 measurement data, 83, 84 Analytic methods, specific analysis of dispersion, 168 Bartlett's test, 137, 175, 179 concomitant variation, approach to, 73 confidence limits, 197 covariance analysis, 75, 133, 137 determinants of matrices, 168 F test, 179 heterogeneity, within-cell, 85, 133, 137, 168, 175, 179 index of absolute difference, 105, 185 L statistic, 148, 170 means, multivariate, 164, 165, 168, 170, 175, 179 “omnibus” tests, 84 “portmanteau” tests, 84 power curves, 197, 198 pyramidal handling of data, 73 regression, 82, 132, 133, 148 significance test, one-tailed, 89, 198 variance, generalized, 164, 168, 175, 179 variance analysis, 82, 86, 133, 137, 150, 157, 175 Wilks' test, 168 Anamnestic data, reliability of, 14 Anthropometric studies genetic component in, 164 measurements obtained, 164 variation, effect of maternal age on, 165 parity, 165 radiation, 165, 196 Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 47 Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, 2 Atomic bombs, mortality from, 28 radiation from, 33 Austrians, in Nagasaki, 23 Autopsy program, 9 description of, 184 of Hayashi, 189 randomness of autopsies, 184 type of data, 187 Biases, of sampling, 191 see also “comparability of irradiation subclasses” Birth injury death during first 9 months, 152 effect on stillbirth rate, 119 Birth rates, Japanese, 19 Birthweight accuracy of, 131 effect on, of maternal age, 132, 148 economic status, 131, 148 nutrition, 131 parental radiation, 132, 196 parity, 132, 148 year of birth, 148 genetic component in, 131 “Black market,”4, 132 Blood group (A-B-O) frequencies, 25 Cataracts, radiation, 33, 69 Chest circumference of child, in relation to parental radiation, 164 Chikuzen type, of Japanese, 171 China, 21 Chinese, in Nagasaki, 22, 28 Chi-square, 82 factorial, 82 in analysis of age and parity effects on malformations, 105 Christianity, ban against, 22, 24 Codes for data, 18 Genetics Long Form, 221 Genetics "9 Follow-up, 225 Genetics Short Form, 218 Committee for the Investigation of the Effects of the Atomic Bombs (Japanese), 2, 20 Committee on Atomic Casualties, 1, 19, 87 Comparability of irradiation subclasses age, 55, 73 background, 71, 192 consanguinity, 53, 73 dilatation and curettage of uterus, 61, 73 economic status, 59, 73 induced abortions, 61, 73 parental cooperation, 63 parity, 55, 73 positive serological test for syphilis, 61, 73 repeat registrations, 63, 73 sequelae of exposure, 69 year to year changes in proportions, 69 Confidence limits, of attribute data, 196 Congenital defect—see “malformation, congenital” Consanguinity allowance for, in analysis, 76 differences, in exposure subgroups, 53, 73 effect of Christianity on, 55 Controls, use of exposed persons as, 86 see also “comparability of irradiation subclasses” Cooperation, of parents, 63

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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study Covariance analysis, 75, 133, 137 Cytogenetic studies, 18 Danes, in Nagasaki, 23 Death, from birth to 9 months of age frequency of, as affected by birth injury, 152 congenital syphilis, 152 maternal age, 152 maternal nutrition, 152 parental radiation, 157, 196 parity, 152, 162 genetic component of, 151 neonatal, definition of, 151 operating characteristic curve of, 198 Degrees of freedom in analysis of attribute data, 81 Deshima, 22, 24 “Disaster effect,” vs. “radiation effect,”33, 150, 192 Distance, in relation to symptoms, 41 Distance-dosage relationship, 36, 46 Drosophila, 199, 203, 204, 208, 209, 212, 213, 216 mutation rate, induced, 211 mutation rate, spontaneous, 206 number of genes in, 212 Dutch, in Nagasaki, 22, 23, 24 Economic status, allowance for, in analysis, 76 effect on birthweight, 131 effect on frequency of autopsy, 186 of control and irradiated, 59 English, in Nagasaki, 22, 23 Errors, clerical, 15 diagnostic, 15 Exposure to radiation, sequelae of cataracts, 33, 69 leukemia, 33, 69 Finland, 21 Formosa, 21 Franciscans, in Nagasaki, 22 French, in Nagasaki, 23 Funnel chest, 102 Gamma rays, importance in dosage, 52 Genes—see also “accumulation factor” additive effects of, 213 number in Drosophila, 212 number in man, 212, 217 Genetic damage, indicators of, 3, 5, 72 Genetics Conferences first, 2, 217, 231 second, 19 Genetics Long Form, 9, 14, 61, 93, 221 Genetics 9-Months Follow-up, 15, 225 Genetics Short Form, 5, 9, 44, 53, 61, 218 Guinea pig, 213 radiation of, effect on birthweight, 203 on growth and development, 203 on neonatal death rate, 203 Goa, 21 Government, Japanese, 3 Hawaii, 28, 173 Head circumference of child, in relation to parental radiation, 164 Heart disease, congenital, 15, 102 Hernia, inguinal, 15, 102 Heterogeneity, within exposure cells, 85, 133, 137, 168, 175, 179 Honshu, 21 Indonesia, 21 Ishikawa type, of Japanese, 171 Japan Science Council, 34, 189 Japanese, origin of, 21 physical types of, 171 Jesuits, in Nagasaki, 21 Korea, 21, 173 “Korean colony,” in Hiroshima, 28 Kyushu, 21 LD50, man, 45 Length of child, in relation to parental radiation, 164 Leucopenia, following irradiation, 46, 50 Leukemia, 33, 69 Macao, 21, 24 Malaysia, 21 Malformation, congenital—see also under specific type accuracy of diagnosis, 99 autopsy studies of, 184 definition of major, 99 minor, 99 frequency, in relation to parental radiation, 195 at age 9 months, 115 at birth, 110 specific types, 117 frequency of, as affected by maternal age, 105 nutrition, 110 parity, 105 viral infections, 110 operating characteristic curve of, 198 opportunities for concealment, 63 study of Macht and Lawrence, 202 types encountered, in ABCC study, 100 comparison, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 102 in other studies on Japanese, 101 Manchuria, 21, 172 Marshall Islands, 49 Meiji era, 22 Mental defect, severe, 102, 104 Midwives, 4, 5, 9 Midwives Association, 5 Ministry of Welfare, Japanese, 2 Miscarriages, reporting of, 9 Mongolism, 110 Mouse radiation of, effect on malformation frequency, 201 on neonatal death rate, 203 on sex ratio, 200 on stillbirth frequency, 202 sterility following irradiation, 200 Mutation rates, induced by radiation, 3 in Drosophila, 211 in man, 211, 217 in the mouse, 210 Mutation rates, spontaneous, 3, 205 in Drosophila, 208 in man, 209 in the mouse, 209 Mutations, types of “detrimentals,”164 “invisibles,”131 lethal, 88, 118, 204, 205 ratio of types, 206, 207 sex-linked, 88, 203 “visibles,”104, 204, 205

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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study Nagasaki Medical School, 29, 102, 184, 188, 189 National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council (U.S.), 1, 3, 19, 20 National Institute of Health, Japanese, 2, 5, 20 National Research Council, Japanese, 2 Neonatal death—see “death, neonatal” Neutrons, importance in dosage, 51, 52 “Nine-months program,” description of, 14 Non-orthogonality, 86, 157 Nutrition, maternal, effect on birthweight, 132 death during first 9 months, 152 malformation frequency, 105 size of adult, 172 stillbirth frequency, 119 Okayama type, of Japanese, 171 Operating characteristic curves, 198 Parity allowance for, in analysis, 76 differences, in irradiation subclasses, 55 Parity effects on birthweight, 132, 148 on death during first 9 months, 152 on growth and development, 165 on malformation frequency, 105 on sex ratio, 89 on stillbirth frequency, 120 Plutonium-239, 28 Polynesia, 21 Portuguese, in Japan, 21, 24 Prefecture, definition of, 23 Pregnancy registration, Japanese, 5 completeness of, 7 repeat, 63, 77 Radiation, indicators of genetic effects of, 3, 5, 72 Radiation, residual, 33, 189 Radiation, symptoms of diarrhea, 36 epilation, 29, 36, 47 oropharyngeal lesions, 29, 36, 47 petechiae, 29, 36, 47 Radiation categories definition of by ABCC, 44 by Hayashi, 189 dosage in, 45, 50 Radiation Census, 44 Radiation history, 5, 9, 38 validity of, 44 Radiation sickness, syndrome of, 34 Ration system, 4 Registration, of pregnancy—see “pregnancy registration” Rejected observations, justification, 77 Rockefeller Foundation, 20 Roentgen, 45 Roentgen equivalent physical, 45, 46, 51, 203 Russia, 21 Russians, in Nagasaki, 23, 25 Ryukyu Islands, 21 Sampling, balanced, 75 Satsuma type, of Japanese, 171 Selection, natural, in man, 213 Sequelae, late, of exposure to bombs, 69 Sex differences, in anthropometrics, 170 in birthweight, 135 in indicator values, 192 in malformation frequency (absent), 110 in neonatal death rate, 157 in stillbirth frequency (absent), 124 Sex ratio effect of concomitant variation on, 89 effect of irradiation of parents on, 89, 194 genetic control of, 88 operating characteristic curves of, 198 study of Macht and Lawrence, 201 Shielding, 36, 50 in relation to symptoms, 41, 42 Siberia, 21 Sinus, pilonidal, 15, 104 Spanish, 22 Sterility, in mouse following radiation, 200 Stillbirth definition of, 118 frequency of, as affected by birth injury, 119 congenital syphilis, 119 maternal age, 120 nutrition, 119 parental radiation, 124, 196 parity, 120 paternal age, 120 genetic component in, 118 operating characteristic curve of, 198 study of Macht and Lawrence, 203 Sweden, 21 Syphilis, maternal, 9 allowance for, in analysis, 76 different rates, in irradiation subclasses, 61 effect on death during first 9 months, 152 effect on stillbirth frequency, 119 relation to frequency of autopsy, 187 “Ten-per cent sample,”9 Tokugawa Shogunate, 22, 24 U.S. Army of Occupation, 3 U.S. Army-Navy Joint Commission, 2, 47, 49 U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, 1, 3, 19, 87 “Unregistered Series,”7 Uranium-235, 28 Uterus, dilatation and curettage of, 61 allowance for, in analysis, 76 Variance analysis, 82, 86, 133, 137, 150 Variances, test for equality of, 84 Viral diseases effect on malformation frequency, 105 Weight of child, in relation to parental radiation, 164 X-chromosome, 88, 204 Y-chromosome, 88

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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study NAME INDEX Alexander, M.L., 208, 211, 230 Anderson, R. C, 53, 234 Antonov, A.N., 59, 110, 131, 230 Armitage, P., 20 Balfour, M.I., 59, 230 Barnett, H.L., 234 Bartlett, M.S., 175, 179, 230 Beadle, G.W., 1, 2, 19 Beardsley, R., 21, 230 Bell, M, 231 Bellows, M.T., 233 Bernstein, M., 89, 230 Block, M., 1 Bond, V.P., 50, 230 Bonnier, G., 208, 230 Borges, W., 33, 69, 231 Bowers, J.Z., 36, 235 Box, G.E.P., 84, 179, 230 Boxer, C.R., 24, 230 Boyd, W. C, 28, 230 Bradshaw, E.S., 55, 234 Brandt, A.E., 20, 82 Brewer, R., 53, 234 Brinkley, F., 21, 230 Bronk, D.W., 1 Brown, A., 231 Brues, A., 1 Burke, B.S., 59, 230 Butterfly, Madame, 25 Carter, C., 55, 105, 230 Charles, D.R., 2, 19, 201, 202, 230 Ciocco, A., 55, 89, 230 Cochran, W.G., 82, 230 Coffey, V.P., 105, 230 Cogan, D.G., 33, 69, 230 Collins, V.P., 49, 230 Connell, F.H., 19 Cox, G., 86 Craig, C.C., 19, 20 Cronkite, E.P., 50, 230 Crow, J.F., 203, 231 Danforth, C.H., 2 Davidson, F., 20 Dean, R.F.A., 59, 231 Dobzhansky, T., 209, 231 Dunham, C.L., 50, 230 Dwyer, P.S., 20 Ebbs, J.H., 59, 231 Eisenhart, C., 82, 231 Evans, R.D., 210, 211, 212, 231 Falk, R., 206, 231 Falls, H.F., 213, 234 Fillmore, P.G., 69, 231 Fisher, R.A., 84, 231 Folley, J.H., 33, 69, 231 Forrestal, J.T., 1 Glass, H.B., 208 Gordon, J.E., 55, 233 Green, E., 20 Gruenwald, P., 105, 231 Hadorn, E., 202, 231 Haldane, J.B.S., 209, 211, 217, 231 Hammond, E.C., 234 Harris, H., 85, 231 Harris, T., 22 Hasebe, K., 171, 231 Hayashi, I., 184, 188, 189, 190, 191, 231 Hechter, H., 50 Hegnauer, H., 55, 231 Hempelmann, L.H., 36, 45, 49, 231 Henshaw, P.S., 1 Hertwig, P., 200, 202, 203, 231 Hill, B., 20 Hoffman, J.G., 36, 45, 49, 231 Holmes, R., 98 House, V.L., 213, 231 Hsiao, B., 20 Hulse, F.S., 171, 232 Ingalls, T.H., 102, 234 Ives, P.T., 208, 211, 232 Izumi, T., 23, 232 Jessop, W.J.E., 105, 230 Johnson, H., 20 Kaempfer, E., 22, 24, 171, 232 Kalmus, H., 200, 232 Karn, M.N., 55, 131, 232 Kastenbaum, M., 20, 69, 233, 234 Kelley, H.C., 20 Kendall, M.G., 86, 232 Keosian, J., 216, 232 Kerkis, J.J., 206, 232 Kimura, S., 33, 69, 230 Kirk, N.T., 1 Kirkwood, J.B., 102, 234 Kitamura, S., 234 Kiyono, K., 21, 232 Kobayashi, R., 20 Kodani, M., 18, 53, 234 Komai, T., 20 Koya, Y., 19, 232 Krooth, R., 20, 75, 105, 185, 214, 232 Kuji, V., 101 Kurasaki, H., 69, 232 Lamphiear, D.E., 20 Landtman, B., 55, 105, 232 Lange, R.D., 33, 69, 232, 233 Lawrence, P.S., 200, 202, 203, 232 Lefevre, G., 208, 232 Lerner, I.M., 206, 232 LeRoy, G.V., 47, 232, 234 Liebow, A.A., 234 Lisco, H., 36, 45, 49, 231 Loeffler, R.K., 49, 230 Lorenz, E., 69, 232 Lowe, C.R., 55, 89, 232 Lucas, H.C., 20, 74 Lüning, K.G., 208, 230 Lyon, G.M., 1

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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study Macht, S.H., 200, 202, 203, 232 MacMahon, B., 55, 233 Maki, H., 20 Martin, S.F., 33, 69, 230 Matsubayashi, I., 3 Matsumoto, S., 4, 233 Matsumura, A., 171, 233 Matsunaga, H., 69, 232 Matsuoka, S., 69, 232 McCarthy, D., 105, 230 McDonald, D.J., 234 McIntosh, R., 104, 233 McKeown, T., 55, 89, 232, 234 Meerdervoort, P., 22 Merritt, K.K., 233 Metrakos, J.D., 200, 232, 235 Millis, J., 131, 233 Mitani, S., 101 Moloney, W.C., 33, 69, 232, 233 Morton, J., 19 Morton, N., 131, 233, 234 Mourant, A.E., 28, 233 Moyle, W.J., 231 Muller, H.J., 2, 203, 206, 207, 208, 210, 211, 212, 213, 215, 216, 233 Munro, N.G., 21, 233 Murdoch, J., 21, 24, 233 Murphy, D.P., 202, 233 Myers, R.J., 55, 233 Nachtsheim, H., 209, 233 Nagai, I., 20 Neel, J.V., 1, 2, 19, 45, 53, 55, 96, 208, 209, 210, 213, 233, 234 Nickson, J.J., 49, 234 Nixon, W.C.W., 59, 234 Novitski, E., 55, 89, 234 Olkin, I., 20 Oughterson, A.W., 1, 33, 233 Parkes, A.S., 200, 234 Penrose, L.S., 20, 55, 131, 215, 232, 234 Perry, Commodore, 22, 25 Phelps, L.V., 7, 20 Plough, H., 19 Prindle, R.A., 102, 234 Rao, C.R., 20, 82, 86, 137, 168, 175, 234 Record, R.G., 55, 234 Reed, T.E., 209 Rhoads, C.P., 1 Rice, R.G., 55, 236 Richards, M.R., 233 Ritterhoff, R.K., 208 Rivers, T.M., 1 Robson, E., 131, 234 Rosenbaum, J.D., 234 Roy, S.N., 78, 234 Russell, W.L., 199, 200, 201, 202, 210, 211, 234 Salber, E.J., 55, 234 Sams, C.F., 2, 20 Samuels, M.H., 233 Sansom, G.B., 21, 24, 234 Sasano, A., 23, 234 Schneider, B.A., 234 Schneidewind, J., 20 Schull, W.J., 19, 54, 105, 208, 209, 210, 234 Schultz, J., 207, 234 Scott, W.A., 231 Seijas, B., 20 Seng, Y.P., 132, 233 Sevitt, S., 184, 188, 191, 235 Shapiro, H.L., 172, 235 Silverberg, M., 200, 232 Sinskey, R.M., 33, 69, 235 Slatis, H.M., 210, 211, 212, 235 Smith, C.A., 59, 110, 131, 235 Smith, C.A.B., 85, 231 Smith, H.F., 20 Snedecor, G.W., 86, 235 Snyder, L.H., 2, 19 Spassky, B., 209, 231 Spassky, N., 209, 231 Spencer, W.P., 203, 207, 235 Spuhler, J.N., 212, 235 Stern, C., 19, 20, 203, 207, 235 Stevenson, S.S., 55, 230, 236 Strandskov, H.H., 89, 202, 203, 235 Stuart, H.C., 230 Sturtevant, A.H., 211, 235 Sutherland, I., 55, 235 Suzuki, M., 234 Takeshima, K., 234 Taylor, G., 19 Tessmer, C.F., 19 Thunberg, K.P., 25, 235 Tietze, C., 88, 235 Timoféeff-Ressovsky, N.W., 203, 206, 235 Tisdall, F.F., 231 Tomonaga, M., 69, 232 Trasler, D.G., 200, 235 Tsuzuki, M., 20 Ullman, J., 20 Ullrich, F., 1 Valencia, J.I., 208 Valencia, R.M., 208 Vor der Bruegge, C.F., 36, 235 Wallace, B., 216, 235 Wallis, W.A., 73, 235 Warkany, J., 105, 110, 235 Warren, S.L., 1, 34, 235 Warren, Sh., 1, 34, 36 Weed, L.H., 1 Westergaard, M., 212, 235 Whipple, G.H., 1 Wilks, S.S., 86, 179, 235 Wilson, R.R., 34, 46, 236 Wishart, J., 137, 236 Wood, J., 234 Woodbury, L., 43, 98, 236 Woolley, W., 24, 236 Worcester, J., 55, 230, 236 Wright, S., 210, 211, 213, 236 Wright, S.W., 69, 232, 234, 236 Yamawaki, T., 33, 69, 231, 232 Yamazaki, J., 234 Yates, F., 86, 232 Yerushalmy, J., 55, 153, 232 Yesley, G., 20 Zelle, M., 19 Zirkle, R.E., 1

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