Subject Index

A

Abortions, 10

induced, 89, 91, 92–95, 101, 104

irradiation subclasses, 87, 89, 91, 92–95, 101, 104, 121

social/legal issues, 3

study methodology, 37, 46, 47

Accumulation factor, recessive genes, 240–241

Acetabulum, dysplasia, 43, 130, 132

Age, parental, 117, 180, 273, 297–298, 300

autopsied infants, 213–214, 216

birthweight, 159, 160–161, 165, 173, 176,178

child deaths, 307, 308, 309, 311, 407

ethnicity and, 54–55

irradiation subclasses, 83–85, 97, 101, 104, 133, 134–135, 138, 142, 143

malformation, 133, 134–138, 141, 142, 143, 383

maternal, 83, 101, 104, 117, 133, 134–138, 141, 142, 143, 147, 148–152, 158, 159, 160–161, 173, 176, 180, 217

neonatal death, 180–181, 182–185, 191, 383

sex ratios and, 117, 289

stillbirths, 147, 148–152, 158, 383

Ainu, 49

Americans, in Nagasaki, 51

Analysis of variance, 100, 104, 161, 163, 165, 166, 168, 171, 178, 185, 197, 203, 207

see also Covariance analysis

Analytic methods, see Methodology;

Statistical approaches and programs

Anamnestic data, 37, 42

Animal studies, 11, 30, 64, 97, 194, 231, 291, 319–320, 339, 490

guinea pigs, 230–231, 241

see also Drosophila;

Murine studies

Anthropometry, 43, 100, 110–111, 130, 192–211, 224, 457, 477

chest circumference, 130, 192, 196, 439, 459



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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study Subject Index A Abortions, 10 induced, 89, 91, 92–95, 101, 104 irradiation subclasses, 87, 89, 91, 92–95, 101, 104, 121 social/legal issues, 3 study methodology, 37, 46, 47 Accumulation factor, recessive genes, 240–241 Acetabulum, dysplasia, 43, 130, 132 Age, parental, 117, 180, 273, 297–298, 300 autopsied infants, 213–214, 216 birthweight, 159, 160–161, 165, 173, 176,178 child deaths, 307, 308, 309, 311, 407 ethnicity and, 54–55 irradiation subclasses, 83–85, 97, 101, 104, 133, 134–135, 138, 142, 143 malformation, 133, 134–138, 141, 142, 143, 383 maternal, 83, 101, 104, 117, 133, 134–138, 141, 142, 143, 147, 148–152, 158, 159, 160–161, 173, 176, 180, 217 neonatal death, 180–181, 182–185, 191, 383 sex ratios and, 117, 289 stillbirths, 147, 148–152, 158, 383 Ainu, 49 Americans, in Nagasaki, 51 Analysis of variance, 100, 104, 161, 163, 165, 166, 168, 171, 178, 185, 197, 203, 207 see also Covariance analysis Analytic methods, see Methodology; Statistical approaches and programs Anamnestic data, 37, 42 Animal studies, 11, 30, 64, 97, 194, 231, 291, 319–320, 339, 490 guinea pigs, 230–231, 241 see also Drosophila; Murine studies Anthropometry, 43, 100, 110–111, 130, 192–211, 224, 457, 477 chest circumference, 130, 192, 196, 439, 459

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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study consanguineous parents, 275 head circumference, 130, 192, 195, 439, 459 length of child, 192, 194, 199–200, 439, 459 sex differences, 138, 152, 163, 193–196, 198, 202, 204–207, 211, 220 weight of child, 192, 199, 439 see also Birthweight Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 75 Army-Navy Joint Commission, 29, 61, 62, 75, 77 Army of Occupation, 31 Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, 1, 8, 30, 32, 272, 281 dosimetry, 5 Atomic Energy Commission, 1, 4, 29, 31, 47, 115 Attitudes parents, 2, 91, 97 public, 8 Attribute data, 106–110, 190, 224 Austrians, in Nagasaki, 51 Autopsy findings, 4, 37, 42, 97, 147, 212–219, 230 congenital malformation, 215, 217 parental age and, 213–214, 216 sampling, 212–213, 217, 219 B Background radiation, 99, 220 Bartlett's test, 155, 203, 207 Bias, sampling, 99, 106, 219, 228–229 Biochemistry, 378 methodology, 5, 8, 367–368 protein electrophoresis, 6, 363–374, 436–438, 441, 442, 447, 454, 458, 473–475 Birth injury, 147, 180 Birth rates, 47 Birth/pregnancy registrations, 10, 32, 33–37, 91, 96, 101, 105, 272, 281–282, 292–293, 332, 378, 391, 432, 453 Birthweight, 97, 100, 101, 110–111, 159–178, 192, 193, 224, 231, 241, 273, 299, 311–312, 426, 439 duration of pregnancy, 409 induced pregnancy termination, 105–106 midwife records, 159 parental age and, 159, 160–161, 165, 173, 176, 178 parity, 159, 160–161, 165, 173, 176, 178, 193, 409, 411, 421, 426 sex differences, 164–178, 220 socioeconomic status, 159, 176, 177–178, 426 “Black market,”32, 160 Blood hemogloblin, 365 petechiae, 63, 64, 65, 380 types, 53, 56, 368 British Medical Research Council, 271 Burn injuries, 61, 69 C Cancer, 389–398, 404, 415, 417, 418, 419–420, 422, 423, 424, 425, 426, 427, 434, 435, 448, 455, 457, 466–468, 487, 491 leukemia, 61, 97, 98, 390, 395–396, 404, 422, 427, 491 murine, 390, 398 neuroblastomas, 397, 457 retinoblastomas, 389–390, 392, 394, 396, 397, 457, 468 study methodology, 37, 46, 47 Wilms tumor, 390, 392, 394, 396–397, 457, 468 Cataracts, 61, 97, 471–472 Chest circumference, 130, 192, 196, 439, 459 Chi square, 83, 91, 93, 96, 101, 110, 133, 142, 155, 157, 185, 189, 409 Chickuzen type, of Japanese, 199 Child deaths, 6, 291–323, 327–340, 455, 462, 466, 479, 487 parental age and, 307, 308, 309, 311, 407 parity effects, 307, 310, 409, 411, 421, 426 sex differences, 306–307, 396, 407–408, 423, 424, 426 socioeconomic status, 299–300, 301, 335, 409, 426 study methodology, 293–295, 328–333, 405–415

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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study study samples, 292–293, 328–332, 405–406, 407, 409 see also Neonatal death China, 49 Chinese, in Nagasaki, 50, 56 Christianity ban against, 50, 52 consanguineous marriages, 83 Franciscans, 50 Jesuits, 49 Chromosomes, 5, 6, 116, 231–232, 321, 337, 338, 344–361, 364, 378, 443–444, 488 autosomal trisomics, 352–353, 353, 354, 355 carcinogenesis, 390 sex chromosomes, abnormalities, 348, 359–361 sex-specific, 116, 232, 280, 288, 289, 319, 344, 347, 349, 435, 436, 438, 441, 444, 445–446, 457, 458–459, 468–469, 475, 476, 479 structural rearrangements, 349–352, 354, 356, 435–436, 446, 457–458, 468–469 X-chromosome, 116, 438, 468, 475 Y-chromosome, 116, 232 Codes for data, 56, 246, 249, 253 Committee for the Investigation of the Effects of the Atomic Bombs , 30, 48 Committee on Atomic Casualties, 9, 29, 47, 115 Comparability of irradiation subclasses, 81, 83, 87, 89, 91, 97, 99, 101, 220, 301, 308–311, 313 Concomitant variation, 101, 103–104 Congenital defects, see Malformation, congenital Consanguineous parents, 4, 271–279, 281 anthropometric findings, in children, 275 Christianity and, 83 irradiation subclasses, 81–83, 97, 101, 104, 106, 272, 275 malformation, congenital, in children, 275, 276 rural areas, 83 sex ratios, in children, 275, 281 stillbirths, in children, 275, 277, 278 Contingency analysis, 332, 333, 334 Control groups, 46–47, 114–115, 121, 129–130, 220, 225, 228, 336–337, 345, 389, 391, 405, 453, 454 Covariance analysis, 103, 111, 112, 151, 165, 170, 172, 175, 199, 203 Cultural factors Christianity, 49, 50, 52, 83 Western contacts, 49–56 Cytogenetics, 5, 8, 46, 56, 344–361, 435–436, 438, 445, 447, 454, 457–458, 469, 478–479, 488 D Danes, in Nagasaki, 51 Deshima, 50, 52 Development, see Growth and development Diagnoses malformation, 127–132 see also Autopsy findings Diarrhea, 57, 63, 64, 65, 180, 185 “Disaster effect,” versus “radiation effect,”61, 178, 220 Distance-dosage relation, 62, 64, 70, 74, 75, 78, 79–80, 121, 217, 273, 308, 318, 328–329, 330, 373, 379, 432, 453 Distance-symptom relation, 62–72, 75, 76, 77, 78, 98, 121, 123, 273, 329–330, 379, 380, 453 DNA, 7, 445, 447, 452, 481, 488–491, 493 Dose and dosimetry, 61–80, 317–319, 321–322, 328–331, 378–381, 389, 392, 403, 408 distance-dosage relation, 62, 64, 70, 74, 75, 78, 79–80, 121, 217, 273, 308, 318, 328–329, 330, 373, 379, 432, 453 doubling dose, 431–448, 452, 456, 459–462, 471, 472–482, 487 DS86, 5, 355, 369, 373, 377–386, 389, 392, 403, 404, 406, 407, 409, 411, 413–414, 416, 419–425, 428, 433, 435, 439, 443, 454, 455 exposure categories, 72–99, 81–211, 273, 275, 281–282, 308–315, 318, 328–329, 331, 379–380

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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study gamma radiation, 368, 407, 433–434, 468 lethal irradiation, 10 neutron, 329–330, 368, 380, 381, 393, 403, 407, 410, 413–414, 416, 419–420, 422, 433–434, 436, 444, 454 protein electrophoresis study, 368–369, 373, 436–438, 441, 442, 447, 454, 458, 473–475 residual radiation, 51, 61–66, 79, 127, 217–218 roentgen units, 10, 62, 73–74, 78, 330 shielding and, 64–66, 67, 68, 69–78, 273, 328, 329, 368, 379, 380, 381, 392, 433 T57, 318, 328 T65DR, 5, 329, 330, 331, 345, 368, 369, 377, 379, 380–381, 382, 384, 392, 405, 406, 409, 433, 439, 443, 459 Down syndrome, 436, 445–446 Drosophila, 31, 227, 231–232, 234, 236, 237, 239, 240, 241, 244, 321, 438, 446, 480 DS86, 5, 355, 369, 373, 377–386, 389, 392, 403, 404, 406, 407, 409, 411, 413–414, 416, 419–425, 428, 433, 435, 439, 443, 454, 455 Dutch, in Nagasaki, 50, 51, 52–53 E Economic factors “Black market,”32, 160 post-War Japan, 32, 138, 160, 378, 443, 453 research funding, 29 see also Socioeconomic status Education attainment, 300, 301, 443, 462 midwives, 32 pregnancy registration pamphlet, 8 Electrophoresis, see Protein electrophoresis English, in Nagasaki, 50, 51 Epilation, 57, 63, 64, 65–69, 75, 273, 329–330, 380 Error of measurement, 313, 316 doubling dose, 384–385, 480, 487 malformation data, 91, 97, 130 murine studies, 7 neonatal studies, 43, 91 protein electrophoresis studies, 368–369, 374 sex ratio analyses, 286–287 stillbirths, 333 Ethnicity, see Racial and ethnic factors Exposure to radiation, 3, 4–5, 73, 192, 273, 321–323 anthropometric findings, 43, 100, 110–111, 130, 192–211, 224, 457, 477 autopsy findings, 212–219 birthweight, 159–178 cancer and, 389, 393–398 categories, 72–99, 81–211, 273, 275, 281–282, 308–315, 318, 328–329, 331, 379–380 death, neonatal, 179–191, 277–278 mothers versus fathers, 73, 82–96, 116–126, 134, 139–140, 152–155, 162, 166, 186–191, 193–198, 202, 213–218, 223, 226, 276, 277, 338, 347, 348, 350, 410 sequelae, 61, 97, 99 sex ratio, 116–126 stillbirths, 146–158 see also Dose and dosimetry; Shielding F Finland, 49 Foreigners, genetic influence, 49, 51–56 Formosa, 49 Franciscans, in Nagasaki, 50 French, in Nagasaki, 51 Funnel chest, 130 G Gamma radiation, 78, 79, 80, 217, 330, 363, 368, 381, 407, 433–434, 468 Gender factors, see Sex differences; Sex ratio Genes, 233, 240, 245 accumulation factor, 240–241 additive effects, 241 DNA, 7, 445, 447, 452, 481, 488–491, 493

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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study drosophila, 240 genomes, 2, 364–365, 396, 447, 473, 480, 481 Japanese inhabitants, genetic history, 49, 51–56, 199 mRNA, 365 see also Chromosomes Genetic damage, 9–11, 30, 132–138, 217, 365–366, 396, 452–482 consanguineous parents, 271–279 “disaster effect” versus “radiation effect,”61, 178, 220 Down syndrome, 436, 445–446 indicators, 31, 33, 100–101, 102–104, 224–225, 445–448 see also Malformation, congenital; Mutation Genetics Conferences, 30, 57, 245, 259 Genetics Long Form, 37, 42, 89, 121, 249–257, 272–273 Genetics 9-Month Follow-up, 43, 253 Genetics Short Form, 33, 37, 52, 81, 89, 179, 246–248, 272 Genomes, 2, 364–365, 396, 447, 473, 480, 481 Gingivitis, 63, 65–69, 75, 273, 330 Goa, 49 Government role, Japanese, 1, 10, 30–31 National Institute of Health, 30, 33, 48,272, 281 National Research Council, 30 see also specific departments and agencies Growth and development animal studies, 231 socioeconomic status, 299 Guinea pigs, 230–231, 241 H Hair, see Epilation Hawaii, 56, 201 Head circumference, 130, 192, 195, 439, 459 Heart disease, 53, 130 Height, see Length of child Hemorrhages, 63, 64, 65, 147, 380 Hernia, 53, 130 Heterogeneity, exposure cells, 113, 161, 165, 167, 175, 176, 196, 198, 203, 208 Histocompatibility, 472–473 Historical perspectives genetics study, 2–5, 7, 9–11, 29–47, 57, 60, 432–433, 453 Japanese inhabitants, genetic determinants, 49, 51–56, 199 methodologies, 2–5, 7, 9–11, 29–32, 291–293 patient histories, 37, 42, 44 Western contacts, 49–56 see also Radiation histories Honshu, 21 Hydrocephaly, 130 I Indonesia, 49 Infants, 42–46 classification, irradiation, 81–99 sex differences, 87, 138, 139–140, 142, 152–155, 186–191, 193–198, 202, 204–207, 213, 214, 220, 226, 301 see also Birthweight; Neonatal deaths; Stillbirths International Classification of Diseases, 391, 423 Irradiation, lethal dose, 10 Ishikawa type, of Japanese, 199 J Japanese, origin of, 49, 51–56, 199 Japan Science Council, 62, 217 Jesuits, 49 K Korea, 49, 201 “Korean colony,” in Hiroshima, 56 Kyushu, 49 L Legal issues, abortion, 3 Length of child, 192, 194, 199–200, 439, 459 Leucopenia, 62, 74–75, 76, 77, 78

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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study Leukemia, 61, 97, 98, 390, 395–396, 422, 427, 491 Likelihood ratio, 176, 198 Litter size, 319–320, 339, 465, 477, 481 L statistic, 176, 198 Lymphomas, 390 M Macao, 49, 52 Malaysia, 49 Malformation, congenital, 2, 3, 4, 6, 37, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 104, 127–145, 222, 223–224, 227, 229–230, 339, 378, 381, 382, 434, 454–456, 463–466 autopsy findings, 215, 217 concealment, 91, 97 consanguineous parents, 275, 276 diagnosis, 127–132 error of measurement, 91, 97, 130 heart disease, 53, 130 midwives records, 127–128 parental age, 133, 134–138, 141, 142, 143, 383 parity effects, 133 skeletal, 43, 130, 132, 472 see also specific types Manchuria, 49, 200 Marshall Islands, 49, 77–78 Medical Association of Hiroshima, 391 Medical Association of Nagasaki, 391 Meiji era, 50 Mental defects, 130, 132 Down syndrome, 436, 445–446 Methodology, 2–8, 33–48, 293–295, 487–493 abortion data, 37, 46, 47 administrative framework, 29–30, 57, 60 anamnestic data, 37, 42 attribute data, 106–110, 190, 224 biochemistry, 5, 8, 367–368 cancer study, 391–393, 427 childhood deaths studies, 293–295, 328–333, 405–415 codes for data, 56, 246, 249, 253 cytogenetic study, 345 historical perspective, 2–5, 7, 9–11, 29–32, 291–293 International Classification of Diseases, 391, 423 pregnancy registration, 10, 32, 33–37, 91, 96, 101, 105, 272–273, 281–282, 292–293, 332, 378, 391, 432, 453 protein electrophoresis, 364–369, 436–437, 441, 447, 454, 458, 473–475 sex ratio studies, 3, 4–5, 7, 31, 101, 112, 229 see also Diagnosis; Dose and dosimetry; Sampling; Statistical approaches and programs Midwives, 3, 32, 33, 35, 37, 91 birthweight records, 159 malformation records, 127–128 Midwives Association, 33 Ministry of Health and Welfare, Japanese, 1, 30 Miscarriages, 10, 37 mRNA, 365 Multiple births, 274, 294 litter size, mice, 319–320, 339, 465, 477, 481 Multivariate means, 192, 193, 196, 198, 199–200, 203, 204–205, 207, 211, 222 Murine studies, 7, 228, 229–230, 231, 232, 236, 237, 239, 319, 321, 339–340, 443, 444–445, 452, 462–482, 490 cancer, 390, 398 nutrition, 138 protein electrophoresis, 364, 365 Mutation, 9, 10, 328, 378, 386, 431–448, 451–482 detrimental, 192, 234–235, 291 doubling dose, 431–448, 452, 456, 459–462, 471, 472–482 invisible, 42, 159, 234, 235 lethal, 116, 146, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 275, 280, 288, 289, 317, 321–322, 327–328, 364, 438, 473, 476 versus natural selection, 241–244, 271, 276 protein electrophoresis, 6, 363–374, 436–438, 441, 442, 447, 454, 458, 473–475 radiation-induced, 5–6, 31, 228, 238–240, 243–245, 321, 431, 440–441, 444–445, 446, 461–482

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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study ratio of types, 234, 235 sex differences, 116, 231, 237, 238–239, 337, 436, 438, 447 spontaneous, 31, 233–238, 236, 237, 271, 321, 337, 366, 431, 440–441, 442, 445, 446–447, 452, 460, 468–469, 471, 473, 478 tumors, 389–398, 327 visible, 9, 10, 43, 132, 232, 233, 234, 236, 237, 475–477 X-radiation effected, 319–320, 364–366, 390, 397, 443, 469, 473–475 N Nagasaki Medical School, 57, 130, 212, 216, 217 National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council (U.S.),2, 4, 29, 31, 47, 48, 271 see also Committee on Atomic Casualties National Institute of Health, Japanese, 30, 33, 48, 272, 281 National Research Council, Japanese, 30 Natural selection, 241–244, 271, 276 Neonatal deaths, 3, 6, 31, 43, 91, 97, 100, 101, 105, 180, 179–191, 222, 224, 226, 227, 231, 275, 277–278, 381, 382, 417, 434–435, 455, 460 parental age and, 180–181, 182–185, 191, 383 sex differences, 185–187, 189, 220, 300, 301 Neutron radiation, 74, 79, 80, 329, 330, 337, 338, 363, 368, 380, 381, 393, 403, 407, 410, 413–414, 416, 419–420, 422, 433–434, 436, 444, 454 Nine-months program, 42–46,110, 127, 130–132, 143–145, 179–191, 193 Non-orthogonality, 114, 185 Neuroblastomas, 397, 457 Nutrition, 61, 133, 138, 147–148, 159–160, 180, 200, 300, 301 O Okayama type, Japanese, 171 Omnibus tests, 112 Operating characteristic curves, 126, 316–317 Oropharyngeal lesions, 57, 63, 64, 65, 330, 380 P Parents and parenting, general cooperation with study, 91, 97 irradiation categories, 72–99, 81–211, 273, 275, 281–282, 308–315, 318, 328–329, 331, 379–380 see also Age, parental; Consanguineous parents; Exposure Parity effects, 83, 85–87, 104, 271, 297–298 birthweight, 159, 160–161, 165, 173, 176, 178, 193, 409, 411, 421, 426 child deaths, 307, 310, 409, 411, 421, 426 differences in irradiation subclasses, 83–85, 97, 101, 104, 133, 136–137, 138, 143, 148–152 growth and development, 193 malformation frequency, general, 133 neonatal death, 180–181, 182–185, 188, 190 stillbirths, 148, 156, 157, 181 Petechiae, 66–69, 75, 273, 329–330 Physicians birth, attended by, 32 malformation diagnosis, 127, 128 pregnancy/birth registration, 35, 37, 281 Plants, irradiation effects, 30 Plutonium, 46, 56, 57 Political factors Christianity banned, 50, 52 missionaries, 50 research influences, 4, 492 Polynesia, 49 Portmanteau tests, 112 Portuguese, in Japan, 49–50, 52 Power curves, 225, 226 Pregnancy and pregnant women duration of pregnancy, 298–299, 409 miscarriages, 37 registration, 10, 32, 33–37, 91, 96, 101, 105, 272, 281, 292–293, 332, 378, 391, 432, 453

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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study termination effects, 13–269, 434 see also Abortion Protein electrophoresis, 6, 363–374, 436–438, 441, 442, 447, 454, 458, 473–475 Purpura, 57, 63, 64, 65 Q Questionnaires, forms births, 34–35, 38–41 Genetics Long Form, 37, 42, 89, 121, 249–257, 272–273 Genetics Short Form, 33, 37, 52, 81, 89, 179, 246, 272 pediatric follow-up, 44–45 response bias, 229 R Racial and ethnic factors, 117, 225 age and, 54–55 Japanese inhabitants, genetic history, 49, 51–56, 199 Radiation, indicators of genetic effects, 31, 33, 100–101, 102–104, 271 anthropometric findings, 192–211 autopsy findings, 212–219 birthweight, 159–178 consanguineous parentage, 271–279, 281 death, neonatal, 179–191, 227, 277–278 malformation, 127–145 sex ratio, 116–126, 280–290 stillbirth, 146–158 Radiation, residual, 51, 61–66, 79, 127, 217–218 Radiation categories, 72–99, 81–211, 273, 275, 281–282, 308–315, 318, 328–329, 331, 379–380 defined, 72, 117, 273 dosage in, 73, 78 Radiation Census, 57, 72 Radiation Effects Research Foundation, 1, 8, 344, 391, 397, 405, 427, 445, 488, 489, 490, 491 Radiation histories, 33, 37, 66, 72, 281, 330 Genetics Long Form, 37, 42, 89, 121, 249, 272–273 Genetics Short Form, 33, 37, 52, 81, 89, 179, 246, 272 Radiation sickness, symptoms of, 57 distance and, 62–72, 75, 76, 77, 78, 98, 121, 123, 273, 329–330, 379, 380, 453 see also Diarrhea; Epilation; Gingivitis; Hemorrhages; Oropharyngeal lesions; Petechiae; Purpura Regression analyses, 100, 160, 161, 165, 167, 169, 170, 172, 173, 176, 274, 275–276, 278, 282–287, 333, 335, 336, 338, 381, 384, 389, 392–393, 395–396, 403, 421, 423, 425, 428, 434, 435, 436, 439–443, 456, 457, 461 Retinoblastoma, 389–390, 392, 394, 396, 397, 457, 468 Rockefeller Foundation, 48 Roentgen units, 10, 62, 73–74, 78, 330 Roentgen equivalent physical, 73, 74, 79, 231 Rural areas birthplace, 99, 117, 172 consanguineous marriages, 83 residence, 146, 294 Russia, 49 Russians, in Nagasaki, 51, 53 Ryukyu Islands, 49 S Sampling, 99, 292–299, 313, 316–317, 336, 378, 379, 381–382, 432, 453–454 autopsies, 212–213, 217, 219 balanced, 103–104 bias, 99, 106, 219, 228–229 cancer study, 391 childhood death studies, 292–293, 328–332, 405–406, 407, 409 control groups, 46–47, 114–115, 121, 129–130, 220, 225, 228, 336–337, 345, 389, 391, 405, 453, 454 cytogenetic study, 345, 346 protein electrophoresis, 366–367 “Ten-percent sample,”37, 299–300, 335, 345 Satsuma type, of Japanese, 199

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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study Secondary infections, 61 Sex chromosomes, 116, 232, 280, 288, 289, 319, 344, 347, 349, 435, 436, 438, 441, 444, 445–446, 457, 458–459, 468–469, 475, 476, 479 Sex differences, 109, 462 anthropometric, 138, 152, 163, 193–196, 198, 202, 204–207, 211, 220 autopsy findings, 214 birthweight, 164–178, 220 cancer, 396, 423, 424 childhood deaths, 306–307, 396, 407–408, 423, 424, 426 chromosomal abnormalities, 348, 359–361 infants, 87, 138, 139–140, 142, 152–155, 186–191, 193–198, 202, 204–207, 213, 214, 220, 226, 301 mothers versus fathers, exposure, 73, 82–96, 116–126, 134, 139–140, 152–155, 162, 166, 186–191, 193–198, 202, 213–218, 223, 226, 276, 277, 338, 347, 348, 350, 410 mutation, 116, 231, 237, 238–239, 337, 436, 438, 447 neonatal death, 185–187, 189, 220, 300, 301 protein electrophoresis, 369–371, 441 socioeconomic status, 301 wives versus husbands, data on, 33, 66–69 Sex ratios, 85, 100, 116–126, 222–223, 226, 227, 228–229, 232, 280–290, 293, 302–305, 322, 410, 438, 458–459, 476 consanguineous parentage, 275, 281 error of measurement, 286–287 exposure to radiation, 116–126 parental age, 117, 289 stillbirths, 152–155 study methodology, 3, 4–5, 7, 31, 101, 112, 229 Shielding, 64–66, 67, 68, 69–78, 273, 328, 329, 368, 379, 380, 381, 392, 433 Skeletal system acetabulum, dysplasia, 43, 130, 132 malformation, general, 472 Siberia, 49 Sinus, pilonidal, 43, 132 Social factors, 1, 10–11, 32 abortion laws, 3 cultural, 2, 49–56, 83 midwives, 32, 91 parental cooperation with study, 91, 97 Socioeconomic status, 42, 117, 273, 385–386, 443, 462 autopsied infants, 213, 214 birthweight, 159, 176, 177–178, 426 child deaths, 299–300, 301, 335, 409, 426 educational attainment, 300, 301, 443, 462 growth, 299 irradiation subclasses, 87–89, 99, 101, 104 nutrition and, 138, 148 sex differences, 301 Southern blotting, 365, 366 Spanish, 50, 70 Statistical approaches and programs, 2–8, 100–115, 331, 412–415 analysis of dispersion, 111, 114, 196, 197, 198, 201, 202, 208–209 attribute data, 106–110, 190, 224 Bartlett's test, 155, 203, 207 cancer study, 392–393 chi square, 83, 91, 93, 96, 101, 110, 133, 142, 155, 157, 185, 189, 409 concomitant variation, 101, 103–104 confidence limits, 225 contingency analysis, 332, 333, 334 control groups, 46–47, 114–115, 121, 129–130, 220, 225, 228, 336–337, 345, 389, 391, 405, 453, 454 covariance analysis, 103, 111, 112, 151, 165, 170, 172, 175, 199, 203 determinants and matrices, 196 F test, 179 heterogeneity, within-cell, 113, 114, 161, 165, 167, 175, 176, 196, 198, 203, 208 historic inhabitants of Japan, 50–51 index of absolute difference, 133, 213 likelihood statistic, 176, 198 measurement data, 111, 112 means, multivariate, 192, 193, 196, 198, 199–200, 203, 204–205, 207, 211, 222

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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study omnibus tests, 112 portmanteau tests, 112 power curves, 225, 226 pyramidal handling of data, 101 Radiation Census, 57, 72 radiation data, 57, 62, 66–69, 72 regression analyses, 100, 160, 161, 165, 167, 169, 170, 172, 173, 176, 274, 275–276, 278, 282–287, 333, 335, 336, 338, 381, 384, 389, 392–393, 395–396, 403, 421, 423, 425, 428, 434, 435, 436, 439–443, 456, 457, 461 significance test, one-tailed, 97, 222, 226, 339, 492 variance, generalized, 85, 87, 111–112, 113, 114, 176, 192, 196, 201, 203, 207 variance analysis, 100, 104, 161, 163, 165, 166, 168, 171, 178, 185, 197, 203, 207 vital statistics, 10, 56–57, 121, 281, 295, 391, 426 Wilks' test, 196 see also Error of measurement; Questionnaires, forms; Sampling Stillbirths, 3, 6, 9, 31, 37, 100, 101, 146–158, 152, 179, 181, 224, 226, 227, 230–231, 272, 333, 381, 382, 434, 447, 448, 454–456, 463–466 concealment of, 91, 97 consanguine parents, 275, 277, 278 error of measurement, 333 induced termination and, 105 parental age, 147, 148–152, 158, 383 parity effects, 148, 156, 157, 181 sex ratios, 152–155 Sweden, 49 Syphilis, 37, 42, 89, 90, 101, 104, 147, 157, 180, 213, 215 T T57, radiation dose, 318, 328 T65DR, radiation dose, 5, 329, 330, 331, 345, 368, 369, 377, 379, 380–381, 382, 384, 392, 405, 406, 409, 433, 439, 443, 459 “Ten-percent sample,”37, 299–300, 335, 345 Thalassemia, 365 Togugawa Shogunate, 50, 52 Tumors, malignant, see Cancer U United Kingdom, 491 English, in Nagasaki, 50, 51 United Nations, 271, 444 “Unregistered Series,”35, 212, 272 Uranium, 46, 56 Urban areas origin, 117 residence, 99, 146, 294 Uterus, dilation and curettage, 89, 91, 95, 104 V Variance, generalized, 85, 87, 111–112, 113, 114, 176, 192, 196, 201, 203, 207 see also Analysis of variance; Covariance analysis Variances, test for equality of, 112 Viral diseases, 133 Vital statistics, 10, 56–57, 121, 281, 295, 391, 426 W Weight of child, 192, 199, 439 see also Birthweight Wilks' test, 196 Wilms tumor, 390, 392, 394, 396–397, 457, 468 World Health Organization, 271, 391 X X-chromosome, 116, 438, 468, 475 X-ray irradiation, 319–320, 364–366, 390, 397, 443, 469, 473–475 Y Y-chromosome, 116, 232