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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS A Genetic Study edited by James V.Neel and William J.Schull NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1991
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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W.Washington, DC20418 The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is adminstered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M.White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication data The children of atomic bomb survivors : a genetic study/edited by James V.Neel and William J.Schull. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-04488-X (hard); ISBN 0-309-04537-1 (soft) 1. Children of atomic bomb victims—Health and hygiene—Japan— Hiroshima-shi. 2. Children of atomic bomb victims—Health and hygiene—Japan—Nagasaki-shi. 3. Radiation—Toxicology. 4. Genetic toxicology. I. Neel, James V. (James Van Gundia), 1915–. II. Schull, William J. RA648.3.C49 1991 91–10042 614.5'909–dc20 CIP Printed in the United States of America
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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study Preface The National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, in concert with the appropriate Japanese agencies, has been engaged for some 45 years in an attempt to understand the late health effects on the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. From the outset of this long-term study, one of the major questions demanding consideration has been the possible genetic effects of this exposure. This issue became the first of many to be addressed on a comprehensive scale in the follow-up studies. Planning for the genetic program began in 1946, and data collection has been continuous since 1948. Over the years, the effort has been funded by the United States Atomic Energy Commission, the Energy Research and Development Administration, and the Department of Energy, and the Japanese Minstry of Health and Welfare. For this book, Drs. Neel and Schull have selected for reprinting 13 publications which express their scientific views and those of their Japanese colleagues. Their purpose is to disseminate the results obtained in the genetic study, and they have added an analytical introduction and epilogue. This collection of reprints from scientific journals, and the authors' analysis of the possible course of future studies, should be of great interest to the scientific community and, ultimately, to a concerned public. The NAS-NRC takes great pride in its involvement in this unique, long-term research program. The data obtained in the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission-Radiation Effects Research Foundation (ABCC-RERF) studies, which are available to scientists throughout the world, have provided the basis for estimating genetic, as well as carcinogenic, risks resulting from radiation exposure. They have also been of international importance in the establishment of standards for protection of people in the work place and the general public. FRANK PRESS President National Academy of Sciences
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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study This page in the original is blank.
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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study Contents Orientation 1 Genetic Effects of the Atomic Bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki 9 The Effect of Exposure to the Atomic Bombs on Pregnancy Termination in Hiroshima and Nagasaki 13 Atomic Bomb Exposure and the Pregnancies of Biologically Related Parents 271 Some Further Observations on the Sex Ratio Among Infants Born to Survivors of the Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki 280 A Cohort-Type Study of Survival in the Children of Parents Exposed to Atomic Bombings 291 Mortality in the Children of Atomic Bomb Survivors and Controls 327 Cytogenetic Study of the Offspring of Atomic Bomb Survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki 344 Search for Mutations Altering Protein Charge and/or Function in Children of Atomic Bomb Survivors: Final Report 363 Congenital Malformations, Stillbirths, and Early Mortality among the Children of Atomic Bomb Survivors: A Reanalysis 377
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THE CHILDREN OF ATOMIC BOMB SURVIVORS: A Genetic Study Malignant Tumors during the First 2 Decades of Life in the Offspring of Atomic Bomb Survivors 389 Mortality Among the Offspring (F1) of Atomic Bomb Survivors, 1946–1985 401 The Children of Parents Exposed to Atomic Bombs: Estimates of the Genetic Doubling Dose of Radiation for Humans 431 The Comparative Radiation Genetics of Humans and Mice 451 The Future of These Studies 487 Biographical Sketches 495 Name Index 497 Subject Index 509