Alaska, 131

American Petroleum Institute, 46, 65

Analytic studies, 29

Angiosarcoma, 11, 38, 160–161

Animal studies, 46–47, 143

air pollution exposure, 12

ATSDR, 46

biologic markers, 229, 233–234, 238

food-borne toxins, 207, 208

sentinels, 17, 214–215

soil pollution, 17, 204, 214–215

waterborne toxins, congenital defects, 194

Aquifers, see Groundwater

Arizona

Arsenic, 107, 131, 160, 184, 191, 210–211

Asthma, 171–172, 264

Australia, 14, 189

B

Benzopyrene, 119

Beryllium, 164

Biologic markers, 3, 17–19, 47, 116, 120, 121–123, 124, 128, 130, 219–249

animal studies, 229, 233–234, 238

birth defects, 229

blood, 18, 206, 222, 223, 224, 235, 236, 243–244

carcinogens, 18, 232–233, 234, 238

causal inference and, 220, 236–239

children, 224

classification of, 219–220, 246

defined, 17, 219–223

developmental toxins, 162–163

DNA adducts, 163, 222, 223, 232, 230, 236, 239, 241–242

dose response and, 221, 224, 229, 235, 238, 241, 242, 243–244

evaluation issues, 220, 236–239, 247

exposure assessment, general, 17, 239, 241–242

immune system, 220, 223, 233, 236, 241, 242–245

liver, 18, 223–224, 231–232

methodology, general, 236–239, 244–245

models, 239, 248

mutagens, general, 229–230, 234

neurotoxins, 18, 224, 225, 226–229

occupational toxicology, 231–236

PCBs, 18, 224, 230, 232–233

protein adducts, 220, 222, 230, 233–234, 242

reproductive toxicology, 18–19, 229, 233

respiratory disease, 245–246

statistical approaches, 220, 236–239, 247, 248

Superfund sites, 224–225

TCE, 18, 224–225, 229, 230, 236

urine, 224, 225, 235, 236

Birth defects, 36, 38, 133–134, 139, 140

airborne toxins, 11, 194

biologic markers, 229

waterborne toxins, 14–15, 180, 189–197, 265

Birth weight, 20, 190, 198–199, 209–210, 224

Blackfoot disease, 184

Bladder cancer, 13–14, 85, 139, 161, 181, 183–184, 188, 198, 222, 265, 268

Blood

biologic markers, 18, 222, 223, 224, 235, 236, 243–244

food-borne toxins, 206

Blood pressure, 18, 184, 224

Body weight

at birth, 20, 190, 198–199

children, exposure per unit of, 15, 208, 224

soil-borne toxins, 17

Bone disease, 206

Breast cancer, 14, 185

British Clean Air Act, 44

C

Cadmium, 195, 206

California, 10, 37, 78, 94, 107, 110–111, 132–136, 167, 187, 191–193, 198, 214, 259, 266

Canada, 137–138, 159, 164, 182, 213

Cancer and carcinogens, 30, 36–38, 46, 139, 209



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