monitoring data are simply filed away and are not accessible for others to evaluate.
Water quality management and fisheries management have evolved as almost completely separate disciplines. Water quality experts and fisheries experts are trained in separate university departments, belong to different professional societies, attend different scientific meetings, and read different scientific journals. Wildlife and fisheries managers may be trained in the same college or department, but the disciplines remain segregated in many ways. Yet members of these distinct professions find themselves managing nuisance algal blooms, toxic chemicals, fish production, and waterfowl habitat on the same ecosystems. It is not surprising that management programs sometimes work at cross-purposes. For example, in Medical Lake, Washington, fish stocking caused a decline in herbivorous zooplankton, confounding efforts of water quality managers to control nuisance algal blooms (see Box 4.1).
Box 4.1 Medical Lake, Washington
Medical Lake is a large (63 km 2 ),deep (maximum depth, 18 m; mean depth, 10 m), eutrophic lake in eastern Washington. Prior to 1964, the homes on its small watershed were serviced with septic tanks and cesspools. Dense blooms of blue-green algae continued after wastewater diversion because of high rates of internal nutrient loading from enriched sediments, and this led to frequent curtailments of swimming. More than half of the lake's volume was anoxic, and fish were rare or absent. Attempts by the Washington Department of Game to stock trout were unsuccessful because of high levels of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide (Bauman and Soltero, 1978; Soltero et al., 1981).
In 1977, 936 m 3 of liquid aluminum sulfate were added to remove phosphorus from the water column and retard its recycling. After treatment, phosphorus concentrations and algal density were reduced; blue-green algae were largely replaced with less noxious species of green algae; water clarity increased; and large-bodied zooplankton, Daphnia pulex, became the primary regulators of phytoplankton density. The