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Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystems: Science, Technology, and Public Policy
gizzard shad with rotenone. The dead fish were not removed, and this added more phosphorus to the lake water. Another case of miscommunication between water quality managers and fisheries managers occurred in the Medical Lake, Washington, restoration (see Box 4.1). Fish stocking caused a decline in herbivorous zooplankton, confounding the efforts of water quality managers to control nuisance algal blooms.
One consequence of fragmentation in the management of water quality, fisheries, and wildlife is missed opportunities to restore habitat. Aquatic plant management is an important example. Most macrophyte management is aimed at control or suppression of nuisance growths of exotic species. This is an important step, but habitat restoration requires reestablishment of native species important for fish and wildlife habitat. The biomanipulation concept and bioaccumulation of contaminants such as methylmercury and chlorinated hydrocarbons are further examples of links between management of water quality and fisheries.
In sum, restoration of lakes must extend beyond the shoreline to the watershed boundary. The watershed is the natural scale for many restorations. Restorations at this scale are more likely to be self-sustaining than piecemeal restorations. The major barriers to watershed restorations are institutional and educational. Political boundaries seldom correspond to watershed boundaries, and different agencies have responsibility for different ecological components of the watershed. Distinctly different scientific disciplines apply to different watershed components. Effective restoration requires collaboration among this diversity of scientists, economists, managers, and policymakers.
NEEDS IN LAKE RESTORATION
Needs in Federal Lakes Programs
The significance of lakes and reservoirs to the economy of the United States is apparent. Equally apparent are the deterioration of these resources over recent decades and the inadequacy of federal programs to restore lakes. At present, the collective federal water quality program emphasizes streams, rivers, and wetlands. The most recent report of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ, 1989) on environmental trends in the nation does not even mention lakes and reservoirs, except for the Great Lakes. Lakes were also neglected in a report by the National Research Council on the nation's water resources (NRC, 1982). The apparent assumption is that lakes will be