structure, species by species, to its previous percentage composition.
Without augmentation of river flow when necessary, water quality would be unacceptable. Without hatchery production and release of salmonids, the sport fishery would be severely limited, and without regulation of municipal and industrial waste discharges, the water's high quality could not be guaranteed. The 13 dams on the river, the past riprapping and channelization, and the dredging (in the lower river) are all indications of the inescapable major impacts that human activities have had on the river.
Thus the Willamette River restoration effort does not meet the criteria for restoration used in this report. Rather it is an example of river reclamation in which a severely polluted river was cleaned up so that its beneficial uses could again be enjoyed by the public. Just as clear-cutting a diverse, complex forest ecosystem and replacing it with a stand of Douglas fir produces a tree farm rather than a restored forest, so, too, does taking a highly disrupted and polluted river system and merely abating the pollution fail to suffice to ''restore" the river.
Water quality improvement alone, in the absence of a systematic attempt to recreate a fluvial system's diverse and abundant wildlife and plant communities, is not necessarily equivalent to, or sufficient for, restoration.
went into effect and to identify and set aside lands unsuitable for mining in the future. The decision to forgo mining on certain lands will be based on its high value for other uses, including habitat for rare or endangered species.
Although much remains to be done in restoring streams affected by mine drainage and point sources, a variety of federal, state, and local programs are in place to deal with these problems. There is no comparable nexus of programs to deal with restoration of streams, rivers, riparian zones, and floodplains affected by intensification of land use, yet agriculture and urban development are prominent factors in the deterioration of stream habitats, according to a national fisheries habitat survey conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Judy et al., 1984; Guldin, 1989). In 1985, agriculture was reported by states as the primary nonpoint source of pollution in 64 percent of affected river miles (CEQ, 1989). Existing soil conservation programs are designed to reduce soil erosion on cropland, but they