All governments must be willing to try new policy ideas, to assess their outcomes carefully, and to modify those ideas over time.

The recommendations in this chapter should be seen as the beginning of a search for policy innovation. As scientists and citizens learn more about how to put aquatic ecosystems back together—to some extent by trying new approaches—they must simultaneously learn how to make policies and programs to serve such ends.


Clean Water Act of 1977. P.L. 95-217, Dec. 27, 1977, 91 Stat. 1566.

Collins, R. C. 1990. Sharing the pain: Mediating instream flow legislation in Virginia. Rivers 1(2):126–137.

Great Lakes Fish and Wildlife Restoration Act of 1990. P.L. 101–537, Nov. 8, 1990, 104 Stat. 2370.

National Research Council (NRC). 1990. Managing Coastal Erosion. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 182 pp.

National Research Council (NRC). 1992. Water Transfers in the West: Efficiency, Equity, and the Environment. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

Water Resources Development Act of 1986. P.L. 99–662, Nov. 17, 1985, 100 Stat. 4082.

Water Resources Development Act of 1990. P.L. 101–640, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4604.

Water Resources Planning Act of 1965. P.L. 89–80.

White, G. F. 1980. Environment. Science 209:183–190.

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