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Sager, D. R., and C. F. Bryan. 1981. Temporal and spatial distribution of phytoplankton in the lower Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana. Pp. 91–101 in L. A. Krumholz, C. F. Bryan, G. E. Hall, and G. T. Pardue, eds., The Warmwater Streams Symposium. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Md.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New Orleans District. 1982. Atchafalaya Basin Floodway System Louisiana, Environmental Impact Statement. Vol. 3, Appendix G. 250 pp.

van Heerden, I. L., and H. H. Roberts. 1980. The Atchafalaya delta—Louisiana's new prograding coast. Trans. Gulf Coast Assoc. Geol. Soc. 30:497–506.

Wells, F. C., and C. R. Demas. 1977. Hydrology and water quality of the Atchafalaya River Basin. Technical Report No. 14. Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development, Office of Public Works. 53 pp.


Richard Sparks

The Upper Mississippi River (Figure A.6) is a 1,300-mile navigation system maintained by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE), but it is also a national fish and wildlife refuge system, totaling 280,000 acres arranged like a corridor, maintained by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Upper Mississippi River Basin Association, n.d). The Izaak Walton League was largely responsible for persuading Congress to create the refuge in 1924 (Scarpino, 1985) and played a major role again in 1974, when it joined with the Sierra Club and 21 western railroad companies to file a lawsuit to prevent COE from constructing a new dam and set of locks (Locks and Dam 26) near St. Louis, Missouri (Upper Mississippi River Basin Commission, 1981). The plaintiffs argued that the new locks had not been duly authorized by Congress and that more information was needed on the effects on railroads and on the rivers of spending $1 billion (in 1991 dollars) to quadruple lock volume and thereby increase barge traffic on the entire upper river. The U.S. District Court ordered COE to obtain the consent of Congress, as well as more information on environmental and economic impacts. After considering the additional reports, Congress authorized construction of a new dam and single lock, imposed a fuel tax for the first time on commercial navigation, and created a trust fund to use the revenues. Congress also ordered that no further expansion of the navigation capacity of the system occur until a Master Management Plan for the river was prepared by

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