and other wildlife use. Both sites are managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and have wildlife and waterfowl values of major importance. One of the largest bottomland forest restoration projects is currently under way near Monroe, Louisiana, where 1,821 ha purchased by the state in 1984 are being reforested to create a corridor between the existing Russell Sage and Ouachita wildlife management areas.

The Southern Hardwoods Research Laboratory is a research wing of the U.S. Forest Service's Southern Forest Experiment Station. Since the 1950s, some of the most complete and long-term research on regeneration of bottomland hardwood forests has been conducted on research plots established near this laboratory.

Political and Administrative Aspects

Public concern over losses of bottomland forests has increased in recent years with better awareness of the functions and values of wetlands and realization of the magnitude of past and continuing losses. However, most forested wetland restoration is driven by federal programs rather than by grassroots interests. Section 404 of the Clean Water Act of 1977 (P.L. 95–217), which requires that permits be issued by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for any discharge of dredged or fill material into the waters of the United States and adjacent wetlands, is intended to retard loss of wetlands, not restore them. Section 906 of the Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (P.L. 99–662) states that future mitigation plans for federal water projects should include specific plans to ensure that impacts to bottomland hardwood forests are mitigated in kind, to the extent possible (Haynes et al., 1988).

Opportunities for reestablishment occur when the initial loss or modification of the floodplain site, especially its hydrologic and geomorphologic condition, is not permanent and community reestablishment methods are technically feasible. These opportunities may include (1) reestablishment on abandoned, "high-risk" farmland in flood-prone areas; and (2) reestablishment in national forests, wildlife refuges and management areas, flood control projects, or public lands on which bottomland hardwood forest habitat serves management goals that are determined to be in the best public interest (Haynes et al., 1988).

The Food Security Act of 1985 (Farm Bill, P.L. 100–233), the Agricultural Credit Act of 1987, and Executive Orders 11990 and 11988 for protection of wetlands and floodplains provide for restoration of wetland habitat that is crucial to fish and wildlife resources and overall



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