once these symptom-oriented treatments had been completed, the symptoms began to reappear. Restoration of a river or other aquatic system requires replacing not only the predisturbance morphology but the hydrologic conditions as well. To accomplish this, land uses may have to be altered, vegetation may need to be reestablished, and interrelated ecosystems—tributaries or adjacent wetlands—may have to be given fundamental corrective ecological attention as well.

FIGURE 3.1 Schematic representation of a restoration scenario. *Examples of state variables include river stage, water temperature, and fish species.

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