analysis of chloroquine uptake and efflux in resistant strains and development of a convenient assay system for screening candidate antimalarial drugs for P. vivax activity.

RESEARCH FOCUS: Development of an in vitro culture system for P. vivax.

Drug Delivery

Some antimalarial medications must be administered by injection, a method that has several drawbacks. For one, the use of contaminated hypodermic needles is a significant risk factor for contracting a number of serious diseases, including AIDS and hepatitis, in many areas of the world. The discomfort and inconvenience of injections also reduces patient compliance with drug regimens.

RESEARCH FOCUS: New drug delivery approaches, especially transdermal (skin patch) methods.

Botanical Preparations

Two of the most important antimalarial drugs, quinine and artemisinin, were derived from plants, and many indigenous populations have developed botanical preparations to treat the symptoms associated with malaria. While not all of these preparations contain medically useful substances, it is not unreasonable to believe that novel compounds with potential antimalarial activity could be found through an organized screening effort.

RESEARCH FOCUS: A systematic method for identifying plants of interest, screening them, and characterizing the structures or compounds responsible for their antimalarial activity.

Secondary Metabolites

The secondary metabolites of bacteria and fungi have many interesting pharmacologic properties. Microbial fermentations, which contain a rich variety of organic molecules, have not yet been exploited for their potential antimalarial properties. While performance of such assays is not difficult and can be contracted out, considerable research on the chemistry of natural products is needed to identify active components.

RESEARCH FOCUS: Extension of the technology of de-



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