Much recent research has focused on developing effective malaria vaccines (see Chapter 9). The effort has proved more difficult than anticipated, and it appears unlikely that effective vaccines for widespread use will be available during the next decade.


The following reference materials are provided as suggested reading for those interested in a more comprehensive examination of the topics discussed in this chapter.

Bruce-Chwatt, L. J. 1985. Essential Malariology, 2nd ed. London: Heinemann.

Metselaar, D., and P. M. van Thiel. 1959. Classification of malaria. Tropical and Geographical Medicine 11:157-161.

Molineaux, L. 1988. The epidemiology of human malaria as an explanation of its distribution, including some implications for its control. Pp. 913-998 in Malaria: Principles and Practice of Malariology, Wernsdorfer, W. H., and I. McGregor, eds. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Wernsdorfer, W. H., and I. McGregor, eds. 1988. Malaria: Principles and Practice of Malariology, 1st ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone.

World Health Organization, Division of Control of Tropical Diseases 1990. World malaria situation, 1988. Rapport Trimestriel de Sanitares Mondiales 43:68-79.

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