FIGURE 3-2 USAID bilateral malaria program funding (FY 1985 to FY 1989). Note: Over the period 1985-1989, the following countries and areas received funds for malaria activities: Africa (Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Togo, Uganda, Zaire, Zimbabwe); Asia/Near East Region (Afghanistan, Burma, Egypt, India, Morocco, Nepal, Pakistan [received bulk of the funds for this region], South Pacific Region, Sri Lanka, Yemen); and Latin America Region (Belize, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Eastern Caribbean Region, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Peru). Source: Center for International Health Information/ISTI, USAID Health Information System.

malaria research programs. In fact, WRAIR is home to the largest antimalarial drug screening program in the world.

The DOD malaria research programs concentrate on vaccine and drug development and, to a lesser extent, vector control. DOD has established field laboratories in Thailand, Kenya, Brazil, Peru, Indonesia, and the Philippines, all of which are involved in the study of malaria and other tropical diseases and are partially supported by malaria vaccine research funds.

Over the four years spanning 1986 through 1989, DOD allocated almost $38 million to malaria activities, including malaria vaccine development, drug development, and vector biology research and control. While funds for vector research and control have held fairly constant over the six years from 1985 to 1990, malaria vaccine funding was reduced by 26 percent between 1988 and 1989, and funds allocated for drug development have been decreasing steadily since 1985 (Table 3-3).

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

NIAID is one of 13 institutes at NIH, the medical research branch of the PHS. Like other NIH institutes, NIAID supports both intramural and



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