Body mass index, 114, 116

Breast(s), development of, 18, 35, 36–37

Breast cancer

age and, 10–11, 12, 20, 21, 29, 57–58

age at diagnosis of, 128–129

breastfeeding and, 23

carcinogenesis potential for, 13

cell lines, 49–50

in developed countries, 104–109

in developing countries, 16, 109–111, 136

endogenous hormones and, 12, 102

etiology of, 12–13, 78

genetic susceptibility to, 29–31, 43, 112, 115

histological typing of, 43–44, 111, 129

incidence of, 1, 9–10, 11, 75

molecular changes associated with , 45–48

mortality rate for, 1, 10

ovariectomy and, 38

postmenopausal, 2–3, 7, 12

premenopausal, 15

risk factors for, 57–58, 78, 102, 111–116, 136

survival rates for, 137

in women vs. men, 38

Breastfeeding

and breast cancer, 23

breast tissue during, 35

protective effect of, 41–42

Breast self-examination, 129–131

Breast tissue

during breastfeeding, 35, 41–42

calcium in, 44

critical time periods for, 41

estrogen effect on, 78

during menstrual cycle, 35

pathological, 42–44

during pregnancy, 35, 41–42

progestin effect on, 78

receptors in, 40–41

relationships among cell types in, 40

signal complexity in development and differentiation of , 36–37

time domain and, 35, 40

2-Bromo-α-ergocryptine, and mammary tumors , 161, 162

C

Calcium deposits, in breast, 44

Cancer and steroid hormones (CASH) Study , 62, 76, 81, 87

Carcinogenesis potential, 13

Carcinogenicity

in beagle dogs, 154–159, 161–162

direct tests of, 153–159

in mice and rats, 153–154, 155, 161, 162

studies of mechanisms for, 160–162

Cardiovascular disease, oral contraceptives and , 20, 22, 57, 58, 166–167

Case-control studies, 26–27

of benign breast disease, 114–116, 117

design of, 92–93, 97

of developing countries, 109–111

disadvantages of, 26

of early use, 120–124

of ever use of oral contraceptives, 104–105, 124–125

of latency, 107, 108

of long-term use, 106, 125–126

recommendations on, 7, 26–27

and relative risk, 26

size of, 26

of use before first full-term pregnancy , 116–120

Catechol estrogens, 39

Cell lines, 49–50

Cell types, relationships among, 40

Cervical cancer, oral contraceptives and , 23, 167, 168

Children, number of, 112, 114

Chlamydial infection, 56

Chlorethinyl-norgestrel, carcinogenicity of , 158, 159

Chlormadinone, 138



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