paper accounts of a study (Kulenkampff et al., 1974) suggesting adverse reactions. The Association of Parents of Vaccine Damaged Children is formed (Alderslade et al., 1981). Between 1974 and 1978, the proportion of children vaccinated against pertussis falls from 80 to 30 percent (and as low as 9 percent in some areas) (British Medical Journal, 1981).
Japan temporarily stops using pertussis vaccine after publicity about deaths following vaccination. Later in the year, pertussis vaccination is reinstituted in children age 2 years and above. The proportion of immunized children drops from 70 percent in 1974 to 20 to 40 percent in the following years. Reported cases of pertussis increase from 393 with no deaths in 1974 to more than 13,000 with 41 deaths in 1979 (Coulter and Fisher, 1985).
The government-funded National Childhood Encephalopathy Study (NCES) begins in Great Britain, largely as a result of rising public concern about the safety of pertussis vaccine. The study is case-control in design and runs for 3 years (Alderslade et al., 1981).
An epidemic of pertussis occurs in Great Britain. More than 100,000 cases and 36 deaths are reported (Koplan and Hinman, 1987).
In the United States, public health clinics using federally purchased vaccines are required to have parents sign an ''important information statement" before their child can be vaccinated (Coulter and Fisher, 1985).
The Monitoring System for Illness Following Immunization (MSIFI) is established by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). The system is an outgrowth of the monitoring of adverse events following the swine flu vaccine incident.
Two lawsuits are filed in U.S. courts alleging that children were harmed by pertussis vaccine (Koplan and Hinman, 1987).
Meetings are held at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Bureau of Biologics and at the CDC to discuss reports of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in Tennessee following pertussis vaccination. No evidence of a causal relationship is found. Wyeth Laboratories, the manufacturer, withdraws the questioned vaccine lot nonetheless (Coulter and Fisher, 1985).