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paper accounts of a study (Kulenkampff et al., 1974) suggesting
adverse reactions. The Association of Parents of Vaccine Damaged
Children is formed (Alderslade et al., 1981). Between 1974 and
1978, the proportion of children vaccinated against pertussis falls
from 80 to 30 percent (and as low as 9 percent in some areas)
(British Medical Journal, 1981).
Japan temporarily stops using pertussis vaccine after publicity
about deaths following vaccination. Later in the year, pertussis
vaccination is reinstituted in children age 2 years and above. The
proportion of immunized children drops from 70 percent in 1974 to
20 to 40 percent in the following years. Reported cases of
pertussis increase from 393 with no deaths in 1974 to more than
13,000 with 41 deaths in 1979 (Coulter and Fisher, 1985).
The government-funded National Childhood Encephalopathy Study
(NCES) begins in Great Britain, largely as a result of rising
public concern about the safety of pertussis vaccine. The study is
case-control in design and runs for 3 years (Alderslade et al.,
An epidemic of pertussis occurs in Great Britain. More
than 100,000 cases and 36 deaths are reported (Koplan and Hinman,
In the United States, public health clinics using federally
purchased vaccines are required to have parents sign an ''important
information statement" before their child can be vaccinated
(Coulter and Fisher, 1985).
The Monitoring System for Illness Following Immunization (MSIFI)
is established by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). The system
is an outgrowth of the monitoring of adverse events following the
swine flu vaccine incident.
Two lawsuits are filed in U.S. courts alleging that children
were harmed by pertussis vaccine (Koplan and Hinman, 1987).
Meetings are held at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Bureau of Biologics and at the CDC to discuss reports of sudden
infant death syndrome (SIDS) in Tennessee following pertussis
vaccination. No evidence of a causal relationship is found. Wyeth
Laboratories, the manufacturer, withdraws the questioned vaccine
lot nonetheless (Coulter and Fisher, 1985).