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extracts had slightly increased levels of serum and urinary
aluminum compared with those in age-matched controls receiving
aqueous extracts, but aluminum levels in these patients did not
fall outside the broad range of normal values (Glinert and
Burnatowska-Hledin, 1988). Patients were estimated in this study to
receive, on average, about 2.5 mg of aluminum per injection, with
injections being given every 2 to 4 weeks for a period of 3 to 5
years. The DPT vaccines used in the United States are reported to
contain not more than 0.25 to 0.8 mg of aluminum per 0.5-ml
injection (Physicians' Desk Reference, 1989). One study suggested
that use of aluminum-adsorbed DPT was associated with fewer febrile
reactions than use of unabsorbed DPT vaccine was (Waight et al.,
The possibility has been raised that the aluminum content of DPT
vaccines might play a role in some of the adverse events that
occur, or that are suspected to occur, in association with DPT
immunization, particularly encephalopathy. However, there are no
data to indicate that such a relationship exists.
Alfrey AC. 1984. Aluminium intoxication.
New England Journal of Medicine 310:1113-1115.
Alfrey AC, LeGendre GR, Kaehny WD. 1976.
The dialysis encephalopathy syndrome. New England Journal of
Altmann P, Hamon C, Blair J, Dhanesha U,
Cunningham J, Marsh F. 1989. Disturbance of cerebral function by
aluminium in haemodialysis patients without overt aluminium
toxicity. Lancet 2:7-11.
Banks WA, Kastin AJ. 1989.
Aluminum-induced neurotoxicity: alterations in membrane function at
the blood-brain barrier. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
British National Formulary. 1988. London:
British Medical Association/Pharmaceutical Society of Great
Glinert RJ, Burnatowska-Hledin M. 1988.
Serum and urinary aluminum levels in patients receiving
alum-precipitated allergenic extracts. Annals of Allergy
Monteagudo FSE, Cassidy MJD, Folb PI.
1989. Recent developments in aluminium toxicology. Medical
Orlans D, Verbov J. 1982. Skin reactions
after triple vaccine. Practitioner 226:1295-1296.
Pembroke AC, Marten RH. 1979. Unusual
cutaneous reactions following diphtheria and tetanus immunization.
Clinical Experimental Dermatology 4:345-348.
Physicians' Desk Reference, 43rd edition.
1989. Oradell, NJ: Medical Economics Co. Inc.
Waight PA, Pollock TM, Miller E, Coleman
EM. 1983. Pyrexia after diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis and
diphtheria/tetanus vaccines. Archives of Disease in Childhood