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The Artificial Heart: Prototypes, Policies, and Patients
The use of either a total artificial heart or two ventricular assist devices to support or replace the function of both the right and the left ventricles.
Clinical practice guidelines
Systematically developed statements to assist practitioner and patient decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances.
Congestive heart failure (CHF)
Heart failure in which the heart is unable to maintain adequate circulation of blood in the tissues of the body or to pump out the venous blood returned to it by the venous circulation.
Coronary heart disease (CHD)
A condition that reduces the blood flow through the coronary arteries to the heart muscle. Also called coronary artery disease or coronary disease.
Cost-benefit analysis (CBA)
An analytical technique that compares the costs of a project or technological application to the resultant benefits, with both costs and benefits expressed by the same measure. This measure is nearly always monetary.
Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA)
An analytical technique that compares the costs of alternative projects to the resultant benefits, with costs and benefits or effectiveness expressed by different measures. Costs are usually expressed in dollars, but benefits or effectiveness are ordinarily expressed in terms such as “lives saved,” “disability avoided,” “quality-adjusted life years gained,” or any other relevant objectives.
The spread of a technological innovation over time.
Fully implanted mechanical circulatory support device
A mechanical circulatory support system in which all components are implanted so the patient can be free of all external apparatus and can continue normal activities for at least short periods of time. In some systems, the patient would wear a battery pack; others are powered by an implanted energy source that is charged periodically, e.g., several times a day.
Hard device failure
A term used to describe an occurrence or health state created from a mechanical failure of a circulatory support device that results in high risk of immediate death.
Health-related quality of life
The value assigned to duration of life as modified by the key facets of life such as impairments, functional states, and social opportunities that are influenced by health factors such as disease, injury, treatment, or health policy.
Health state utility
An index indicating the value attributed to a specific health state. The value reflects the overall “quality” of life associated with a health state from the perspective of the individual assigning preferences. Health state utilities are commonly used in cost-effectiveness analysis.