Figure 4-1

 

Commonly used early HAWT airfoils

 

68

Figure 4-2

 

SERI advanced wind turbine airfoils

 

68

Figure 4-3

 

Nine-meter GRP wind turbine blade

 

70

Figure 4-4

 

Eleven-meter wood/epoxy blade airfoil thickness distribution and planform

 

70

Figure 4-5

 

Flanged GRP blade root design

 

71

Figure 4-6

 

Flanged root design limitation due to steel/GRP strain incompatibility

 

73

Figure 4-7a

 

Bonded steel root tube GRP hub design

 

74

Figure 4-7b

 

Wood/epoxy blade root

 

74

Figure 4-8

 

All-wood/epoxy composite hub

 

76

Figure 5-1

 

UH-1H composite main rotor blade

 

85

Figure 5-2

 

RTM cooling tower blade

 

86

Figure 5-3

 

4BW hingeless bearingless rotor

 

88

Figure 6-1

 

Wind turbine drive train

 

92

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2-1

 

Blade Sectional Analysis Codes

 

30

Table 3-1

 

Typical Properties of Fibers

 

36

Table 3-2

 

Typical Properties of Unidirectional Composites

 

37

Table 3-3

 

Properties of Case Resins

 

41

Table 3-4

 

High-Performance Thermoplastics Used as Matrix Resins

 

43

Table 3-5

 

Trade-offs Between Thermosets and Thermoplastics as Matrices

 

44

Table 3-6

 

Typical Static Strength, Type 110 Laminate

 

53

Table 6-1

 

Control Effectors and Sensors for a Pitch Controlled Wind Turbine

 

92



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