|Significantly increased serum IgE
||Male battery-manufacturing workers in Korea
||Mean BLL ≥30 μg/dL
||p < 0.05 for IgE levels compared with controls.
||IgE is classic hallmark of type I hyersensitivity, and increase is associated with allergies.
||Heo et al. 2004
|Significantly increased memory T cells, increased CTL cells
||Male lead workers (33-67 y old)
||Mean BLL = 19 μg/dL (range = 7-50 μg/dL)
||p < 0.05 for changes in memory T, CTL cells (age, smoking covariates).
||Relevant to BLL of firing-range instructors.
||Sata et al. 1998
|Significantly reduced percentage of CD3+, CD4+ cells; reduced proliferation of T lymphocytes; decreased HLA responsiveness
||High-exposure group (≥25 μg/dL), mean BLL = 31.4 (± 4.3) μg/dL; low-exposure group (<25 μg/dL), mean BLL = 14.6 (± 4.6) μg/dL
||p < 0.002 for changes in CD3+ cells, CD4+ cells, CD4:CD8 ratio in lowexposure group; p < 0.01 for changes in HLA in lowexposure group; extent of change was greater in highexposure group.
||Same occupation as DOD population.
||Fischbein et al. 1993
|Significant decrease in percentage of CD8+ cells; increased CD4+:CD8+ ratio
||Portuguese workers employed in inorganic lead plants for different durations
||Average BLL = 32 μg/dL; average ALAD activity = 42 U; average ZPP = 52 μg/dL
||p < 0.05 for changes in CD8+ lymphocytes, CD4+:CD8+ ratio.
||Most recent study with BLLs similar to those measured in firing-range instructors.
||Garcia-Leston et al. 2011
|Significantly reduced neutrophil function (chemotaxis, random movement); reduced neutrophil-associated oxidative stress
||Male workers employed in storage-battery plants for average of 4 y
||Average BLL = 41.1 ± 12.6 μg/dL in 22 workers; urinary ALAD <6 mg/L
||p < 0.001 for chemotaxis.
||Relevant to BLL of firing-range instructors; changes in neutrophil function noted as key indicator of leadinduced changes in animal models.
||Queiroz et al. 1993