image  BLL and ZPP levels evaluated at least once every 2 months for each employee whose last BLL was 40 μg/dL or higher until two consecutive BLLs are under 40 μg/dL.

         image  Removal from work of an employee who has a BLL of 60 μg/dL or higher or who has an average BLL of the last three tests (or the average of all BLLs over the preceding 6 months) of 50 μg/dL or higher.

         image  Evaluation of BLL and ZPP levels monthly during medical-removal period.

         image  Removal not needed when the last BLL was under 40 μg/dL.

         image  Temporary removal of an employee who is working at or above the action level and has a medical condition that makes the employee more susceptible to the risk posed by lead.

•  Medical-removal protection benefits include o Up to 18 months of medical-removal-protection benefits on each occasion when an employee is removed.

         image  Employer’s maintenance of earnings, seniority, and other employment rights as though the employee has not been removed.

Employee Information and Training

Employee training is required whenever there is a potential for exposure to airborne lead. Training must include the information provided in Appendixes A and B of 29 CFR 1910.1025. When employees are exposed above the action level, they must be informed of the content of the lead standard, and a training program must be initiated. Training is required each year, and the employer must make available to all employees a copy of the OSHA lead standard and its appendixes (29 CFR 1910.1025(l)).

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Criteria

NIOSH was created in 1970 by the OSHAct and established in the Department of Health Education and Welfare, which became the Department of Health and Human Services, to carry out the duties of the OSHAct assigned to the secretary of health and human services. Those duties include research, experiments, and demonstrations related to occupational safety and health (Public Law 91-596). NIOSH first published its Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Inorganic Lead in 1973. After an OSHA proposal to revise the occupational health standard for inorganic lead in 1976, NIOSH revised its criteria document in 1978 and lowered its recommended 10-hour TWA for airborne lead from 150 to 100 μg/m3 and its recommended maximum BLL from 80 to 60 μg/dL (NIOSH 1978).

NIOSH noted that testimony at OSHA hearings indicated that “based on about 10 studies … to keep blood lead levels in male workers below 40



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