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EMERGING WORKFORCE TRENDS IN THE U.S. ENERGY AND MINING INDUSTRIES: A CALL TO ACTION PREPUBLICATION Committee on Emerging Workforce Trends in the U.S. Energy and Mining Industries Committee on Earth Resources Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Division on Earth and Life Studies in Collaboration with Board on Higher Education and Workforce Policy and Global Affairs Division Prepublication Version

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-PI0000010/DE-DT-2115, Task Order No. 13. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number (ISBN-13) 978-0-309-26744-1 International Standard Book Number (ISBN-10) 0-309-26744-7 Library of Congress Control Number Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu/. Copyright 2013 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Prepublication Version

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org Prepublication Version

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COMMITTEE ON EMERGING WORKFORCE TRENDS IN THE U.S. ENERGY AND MINING INDUSTRIES ELAINE T. CULLEN (Cochair), Safety Solutions International, Chattaroy, Washington CHARLES FAIRHURST (Cochair), Itasca Consulting Group, Minneapolis, Minnesota KATHLEEN A. ALFANO, College of the Canyons, Santa Clarita, California BURT S. BARNOW, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. SALLY M. BENSON, Stanford University, Stanford, California EMILY STOVER DEROCCO, E3, Washington, D.C. LEIGH FREEMAN, Downing Teal Inc., Denver, Colorado JOHN A. PAPPAS, Texas A&M University, College Station ROY RADNER, New York University, New York JOEL L. RENNER, Geothermal Consultant, Inver Grove Heights, Minnesota STERLING J. RIDEOUT, JR, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C. KENNETH C. ROGERS, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (Retired), Rockville, Maryland REGINAL SPILLER, Azimuth Investments, LLC, Houston, Texas JERRY VENTRE, Photovoltaic Systems Engineering Consultant, Oviedo, Florida National Research Council Staff CY BUTNER, Study Director ELIZABETH A. EIDE, Director of the Board on Earth Sciences and Resources GAIL GREENFIELD, Senior Program Officer NICHOLAS D. ROGERS, Financial and Research Associate COURTNEY R. GIBBS, Program Associate JASON R. ORTEGO, Research Associate (until June 2012) CHANDA T. IJAMES, Senior Program Assistant v Prepublication Version

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COMMITTEE ON EARTH RESOURCES CLAYTON R. NICHOLS (Chair), Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (Retired), Ocean Park, Washington JAMES A. BRIERLEY, Brierley Consultancy LLC, Highlands Ranch, Colorado THURE CERLING, University of Utah, Salt Lake City ELAINE T. CULLEN, Safety Solutions International, Chattaroy, Washington DONALD JUCKETT, American Association of Petroleum Geologists (Retired), Springfield, Virginia ANN S. MAEST, Stratus Consulting, Inc, Boulder, Colorado LELAND L. MINK, U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Program (Retired), Worley, Idaho MARY M. POULTON, University of Arizona, Tucson ARTHUR W. RAY, City of Rockville, Maryland RICHARD J. SWEIGARD, University of Kentucky, Lexington National Research Council Staff ELIZABETH A. EIDE, Director (from April 2012) NICHOLAS D. ROGERS, Financial and Research Associate ERIC EDKIN, Senior Program Assistant vi Prepublication Version

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BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES CORALE L. BRIERLEY (Chair), Brierley Consultancy LLC, Denver, Colorado WILLIAM L. GRAF, University of South Carolina, Columbia MURRAY W. HITZMAN, Colorado School of Mines, Golden EDWARD KAVAZANJIAN, JR, Arizona State University, Tempe DAVID R. MAIDMENT, University of Texas, Austin ROBERT MCMASTER, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis M. MEGHAN MILLER, UNAVCO, Inc., Boulder, Colorado ISABEL P. MONTAÑEZ, University of California, Davis CLAUDIA INÉS MORA, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico BRIJ M. MOUDGIL, University of Florida, Gainesville CLAYTON R. NICHOLS, Idaho Operations Office (Retired), Ocean Park, Washington HENRY N. POLLACK, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor DAVID T. SANDWELL, University of California, San Diego PETER M. SHEARER, University of California, San Diego REGINAL SPILLER, Azimuth Investments, LLC, Houston, Texas National Research Council Staff ELIZABETH A. EIDE, Director ANNE M. LINN, Senior Program Officer SAMMANTHA L. MAGSINO, Senior Program Officer MARK D. LANGE, Program Officer NICHOLAS D. ROGERS, Financial and Research Associate COURTNEY R. GIBBS, Program Associate ERIC J. EDKIN, Senior Program Assistant CHANDA T. IJAMES, Senior Program Assistant vii Prepublication Version

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BOARD ON HIGHER EDUCATION AND WORKFORCE WILLIAM E. KIRWAN (Chair), University System of Maryland, Adelphi F. KING ALEXANDER, California State University, Long Beach SUSAN K. AVERY, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts CARLOS CASTILLO-CHAVEZ, Arizona State University, Tempe RITA COLWELL, University of Maryland, College Park, and the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore PETER EWELL, National Center for Higher Education Management Systems, Boulder, Colorado SYLVIA HURTADO, University of California, Los Angeles WILLIAM KELLEY, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Wayne EARL LEWIS, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia PAULA STEPHAN, Georgia State University, Atlanta National Research Council Staff PETER H. HENDERSON, Director, Board on Higher Education and Workforce GAIL GREENFIELD, Senior Program Officer SABRINA E. HALL, Program Associate viii Prepublication Version

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Acknowledgments In conducting this study, the committee relied not only on its own expertise, but it also drew upon input from a range of recognized professionals with extensive expertise in the energy, mining, education, and related areas covered in this study. Some of these individuals made presentations to the committee, some participated in discussions with committee members and staff, and some provided valuable reference information and data in various forms. Together, all of these inputs provided a rich resource base for the committee’s consideration. The committee wishes to extend its gratitude to all of the individuals who provided assistance for this study. The committee further wishes to acknowledge the following individuals in particular for their valuable assistance. The committee wishes to thank the following individuals for their presentations during open sessions at the committee meetings: Steven Seachman (National Energy Technology Laboratory); Allyson Anderson (Professional Staff, U.S. Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee); Kathy Benedetto (Legislative Staff, Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral Resources, House Committee on Natural Resources); Christopher Keane (American Geosciences Institute); John Tombari (Schlumberger Carbon Services); Karl Gawell and Dan Jennejohn (Geothermal Energy Association); Mary Poulton (University of Arizona); John Craynon and Michael Karmis (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University); David Curtiss (American Association of Petroleum Geologists); Andrew Swift (Texas Wind Energy Institute, Texas Tech University); Elizabeth McAndrew-Benavides and Carol Berrigan (Nuclear Energy Institute); Samantha Jacoby (formerly with the Solar Energy Industries Association); Ellen Kabat- Lensch (Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center, Bettendorf, Iowa); Doug Ratcliff and Jon Olson (University of Texas at Austin); John Galiotos (Houston Community College, Northeast College, Energy Institute); Al Escher (Schlumberger Business Consulting); Ron Ness (North Dakota Petroleum Council, Inc.); Susan Howes (Chevron and Society of Petroleum Engineers Talent Council); Marshall Schott (University of Houston, Greater Houston Partnership’s Energy Collaborative Workforce Committee); Brian McPherson (University of Utah); Anthony Carnevale (Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce); David Holt (Consumer Energy Alliance); Dennis McDonaugh (Alamo Colleges, St. Philip’s College); Dixie Sommers (Bureau of Labor Statistics); Martin Scaglione (ACT); Suzanne Tegen, Barry Friedman, and Steven Hauser (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Peter McKenny (Gonzaga University); Dennis Ray (University of Wisconsin–Madison); Clifford Brandon (Automated Systems Alliance Inc.); and Stephen Enders (Colorado School of Mines). These presenters were also helpful in providing additional information and assistance to the committee. The committee also extends its thanks to the following representatives from federal government agencies for their participation in an open discussion meeting with the committee: Mary Cummings (National Nuclear Security Administration), Jeff Duncan (Mine Safety and Health Administration), Thomas Galassi (Occupational Safety and Health Administration), John Howard (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health), Robert LaBelle (Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement), Brenda Pierce (U.S. Geological Survey), and Tim Spisak and Steven Wells (Bureau of Land Management). In addition, the committee thanks the following Department of Energy staff members for discussing workforce issues with selected members of the study committee and staff: Guido DeHoratiis, Natenna Dobson, Shannon Gipson, Sharon Weaver, and Dawn Tolley (Office of Fossil Energy); Penny Boyce (Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Human Capital and Corporate Services); Serena McIlwain (Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer); Kathy Fear (Human Resources Division of the Office of Institutional Operations at the National Energy Technology Laboratory); and Michelle Fox, Linda Silverman, Christina Nichols, Jonathan Bartlett, and Joanna Maher (Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy). The committee further thanks the following for discussing career pathways and ix Prepublication Version

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education with selected members of the study committee and staff: Pierce Hammond and Libby Livings- Eassa (Office of Vocational and Adult Education of the Department of Education). In addition, the following representatives from a range of professional societies and industry associations also provided valuable assistance and information to the committee, for which the committee is grateful: Dave Kanagy and John Hayden (Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration); Hal Quinn, Bruce Watzman, and Leslie Coleman (National Mining Association); Joy Wilson (National Stone, Sand and Gravel Association); Mark Ellis and Darrell Smith (Industrial Minerals Association—North America); Patrick Leahy (American Geosciences Institute); Leila Gonzales (formerly with the American Geosciences Institute); Kevin McCray (National Ground Water Association); and Ann Randazzo (Center for Energy Workforce Development). The committee also thanks Marilyn Suiter and Celeste Carter (National Science Foundation) for their assistance. The committee wishes to offer special thanks to the following individuals for their valued assistance: Raymond Durante (Raymond Durante Associates) for providing a variety of information to the committee, and Donald Juckett for his sage advice and guidance throughout the study and for his service as a liaison with the Committee on Earth Resources. This report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of the independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: R. Lyndon Arscott [NAE] International Association of Oil & Gas Producers (Retired), Danville, California Alicia Carriquiry, Iowa State University, Ames Michael Corradini [NAE], University of Wisconsin-Madison James Dooley, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, College Park, Maryland Charles Goodman, Southern Company (retired), Birmingham, Alabama Stephen A. Holditch [NAE], Texas A&M University, College Station Ellen Kabat-Lensch, Eastern Iowa Community College District, Davenport Marc LeVier K. Marc LeVier & Associates Highlands Ranch, Colorado Andrea Luecke, The Solar Foundation, Washington, D.C. Syd. S. Peng [NAE], West Virginia University, Morgantown Susan Petty, Altarock Energy, Inc. Seattle, Washington Mary Poulton, University of Arizona, Tucson Raja V. Ramani [NAE], Pennsylvania State University Andrew Swift, Texas Wind Energy Institute Texas Tech University, Lubbock Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Roderick J. Little, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, and Lawrence T. Papay, PQR, LLC, La Jolla, California. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. x Prepublication Version

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Contents Summary ...................................................................................................................................................... 1 1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 13 What Is Included in the Report and What Is Not, 16 Data Considerations, 16 Organization of the Report, 18 Report Recommendations, 19 2 Mature Sectors ...................................................................................................................................... 20 Introduction, 20 Oil and Gas, 21 Nuclear Energy, 44 Mining, 62 3 Emerging Sectors .................................................................................................................................. 87 Introduction, 87 Solar Energy, 88 Wind Energy, 108 Geothermal Energy, 126 Carbon Capture, Use, and Storage, 146 Shared Recommendations, 157 4 The Electric Grid ................................................................................................................................ 159 Today’s Electric Grid, 159 The Smart Grid, 161 Workforce and Training Required to Implement Grid Extensions and Improvements and for the Smart Grid, 164 Conclusions, 167 5 Federal Energy and Extractive Industry Workforce Issues ........................................................... 169 The Workforce and Its Issues, 169 Possible Solutions, 177 6 Safety and Health in Extractive Industries....................................................................................... 179 A Look at Demographics, 179 A Safety Dilemma, 183 Workforce Challenges, 190 Conclusions and Recommendations, 193 xi Prepublication Version

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7 Educating and Training the Energy and Mining Workforce ......................................................... 195 Introduction: On Our Present Course, Demand Will Soon Outstrip Supply, 195 Building the Pipeline: Academic and Workforce Preparation Begins in K-12, 197 Bridge from Secondary to Postsecondary and First 2 Years of Higher Education, 201 Moving the Model into Energy, 207 Special Considerations for Energy- and Mining-Related Bachelor’s- and Master’s-Level Engineering and Science Education, 209 Issues and Challenges Relating to Success, 214 Conclusions and Recommendations, 215 8 Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources: Key Findings and Recommendations................................................................................................ 219 Key Findings, 219 Recommendations to Meet Future Labor Requirements, 220 9 Overarching Conclusions ................................................................................................................... 222 Overarching Findings and Recommendations, 225 References ................................................................................................................................................ 229 Appendixes A. Overview of Federal Data Sources Most Relevant to the Energy and Mining Workforce ................. 251 B. Overview of Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources ......................................... 260 C. Data on the Energy and Mining Workforce from Federal Sources ..................................................... 299 D. Acronyms and Abbreviation ............................................................................................................... 369 E. Committee and Staff Biographies........................................................................................................ 374 xii Prepublication Version