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A Overview of the Federal Data Sources Most Relevant to the Energy and Mining Workforce This appendix describes and evaluates the federal data sources that are most relevant to examining the energy and mining workforce. The appendix focuses heavily on information available from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) because it is the primary source of federally collected workforce information. Information from the Census Bureau, the Employment and Training Administration, the Mine Safety and Health Administration, and the National Center for Education Statistics is also discussed. Table A.1 at the end of Appendix A provides a high-level summary of the federal data sources that are most relevant to understanding the energy and mining workforce. The table outlines the information available in each source that is most pertinent to energy and mining, as well as the coverage or scope of the information, the periodicity of data releases, the method of data collection, and the primary use of the information. Although there is some degree of overlap in the information available in these data sources, each source serves a unique purpose. (Web addresses are provided in footnotes for each data source so that the reader can find more detailed information about the sources and data.) CURRENT EMPLOYMENT STATISTICS1 The BLS Current Employment Statistics program conducts a monthly survey of approximately 141,000 establishments and provides the first indicator of current employment, hours, and earnings for the nation, states, and major metropolitan areas. The survey reflects workers covered by unemployment insurance laws (both private and public sector). To account for month-to-month changes in employment, hours, and earnings that are due to normal seasonal variation, estimates are also available on a seasonally adjusted basis. The program provides information for the private sector at a detailed industry level using the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS).2 Thus, the program can be used to collect timely private-sector employment, hours, and earnings estimates for energy and mining industries. Government information is provided at the federal, state, and local government levels, but with very limited detail within each sector. Information is not available by occupation. The primary advantage of the information available through the Current Employment Statistics program is its timeliness— estimates for a given reference month are typically available early the next month. However, because of the speed with which the information is produced, estimates from the program 1 For additional information on Current Employment Statistics, see http://www.bls.gov/ces/. 2 For more information on the NAICS, see http://www.census.gov/eos/www/naics/. 251 Prepublication Version

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252 APPENDIX A undergo subsequent revisions to account for information that was not available at the time the initial information was released. CURRENT POPULATION SURVEY3 The BLS Current Population Survey is a monthly survey of 60,000 households. The survey is conducted for the BLS by the Census Bureau and covers wage and salary workers, self- employed workers, and unpaid workers who worked 15 hours or more during the reference week in a family-operated enterprise. The survey’s primary use is to provide a comprehensive look at the labor force, supplying information on both the employed and the unemployed, including information such as age, gender, race/ethnicity, veteran status, and educational attainment. Information is available by industry and by occupation, although the level of industry and occupational detail available by demographic characteristic varies. Unlike most other Bureau of Labor Statistics programs, the Current Population Survey uses the Census industry classification system to report information by industry. This system is based on the more often used NAICS taxonomy, although there is not a one-to-one mapping.4 Similarly, the Current Population Survey uses the Census occupational classification system to report information by occupation. This system is based on the more commonly used Standard Occupation Code (SOC) taxonomy, but again, there is not a one-to-one mapping between the two.5 JOB OPENINGS AND LABOR TURNOVER SURVEY6 The BLS Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey is a monthly survey of 16,000 establishments. The survey yields estimates of job openings, hires, and separations by industry and region. These estimates can be used to assess the existence of short-term labor shortages. However, because industry information is available only at a very high level (e.g., mining and logging; construction) and information is not available by occupation, these estimates are of limited value in understanding potential labor shortages in specific energy and mining industries and occupations. QUARTERLY CENSUS OF EMPLOYMENT AND WAGES7 The BLS Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages provides a comprehensive view of employment and wages by industry. Unlike other BLS programs discussed in this appendix, the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages is based on a census rather than on a survey. The program is a census of all workers covered by unemployment insurance laws (both private and 3 For additional information on the Current Population Survey, see http://www.bls.gov/cps/home.htm. 4 A crosswalk between the Census industry classification system and the NAICS taxonomy can be found at http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsoccind.htm. 5 A crosswalk between the Census occupation classification system and the SOC system can be found at http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsoccind.htm. 6 For additional information on the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey, see http://www.bls.gov/jlt/home.htm. 7 For additional information on the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, see http://www.bls.gov/cew/home.htm. Prepublication Version

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APPENDIX A 253 public sector) and is based on quarterly tax reports submitted by establishments. In 2010, information was provided by more than 9 million establishments.8 The best feature of the program is that it provides employment and wage information at the 6-digit NAICS code level— the lowest level of industry detail possible under the NAICS taxonomy. OCCUPATIONAL EMPLOYMENT STATISTICS9 The BLS Occupational Employment Statistics program produces annual employment and wage estimates for the 800+ occupations that are part of the SOC system. Estimates include nonfarm wage and salary workers and are based on a survey of 1.2 million establishments conducted over a 3-year period. Using the NAICS taxonomy, the program also provides private- sector industry-specific employment estimates by occupation. For a variety of reasons (e.g., changes in occupational classification systems, changes in the survey reference period, and multiple years of data used to produce estimates), the BLS does not recommend using Occupational Employment Statistics data for time-series analyses (e.g., examining occupational employment over time). In terms of examining the energy and mining workforce, this program is useful for identifying the occupations that are most prevalent in a specific energy and mining industry and their corresponding wages. EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS PROGRAM10 The BLS Employment Projections program produces 10-year labor market projections for the nation. The projections, which are updated every other year, are designed to reflect long- term trends in the economy. The program includes wage and salary workers, self-employed workers, and unpaid family workers. The most recent projections are for 2020 (using a base year of 2010). The program generates the following projections:  Labor force,  Aggregate economy and final demand (GDP),  Industry output,  Industry employment, and  Employment and job openings by occupation. The Employment Projections program classifies industries using the NAICS taxonomy and classifies occupations using the SOC system. Employment projections are also available by a combination of industry and occupation, although these projections include only private-sector wage and salary workers. The projections of job openings are not available by industry. Industry employment and employment and job openings by occupation are the most useful projections for examining the energy and mining workforce. Specifically, these projections are useful for 8 Employment and Wages Online Annual Averages, 2010, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (see http://www.bls.gov/cew/cewbultn10.htm). 9 For additional information on Occupational Employment Statistics, see http://www.bls.gov/oes/home.htm. 10 For additional information on the Employment Projections program, see http://www.bls.gov/emp/home.htm. Prepublication Version

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254 APPENDIX A understanding which energy and mining industries are expected to experience increases in the demand for talent over the coming decade and in what specific occupations.11 AMERICAN COMMUNITY SURVEY12 The American Community Survey is a survey conducted by the Census Bureau that collects information from about 3 million households annually. The survey provides estimates of the characteristics of the population for the nation, states, cities, and counties, including demographic, social, economic, and housing characteristics. Unlike the BLS programs discussed above, the American Community Survey was not designed specifically to capture information about the labor force. However, the survey includes questions that allow for the generation of labor force estimates. Moreover, the survey provides industry information using the NAICS taxonomy and occupation information using the SOC taxonomy, which enables the generation of labor force estimates by industry and occupation. However, the level of detail available by industry and by occupation varies. For example, the utility system construction industry is included in the “construction” industry, and nuclear engineers are included in the “miscellaneous engineers” occupation. The primary advantage of the American Community Survey is the ability to generate estimates for small geographic areas, thus allowing communities to use the information for decision-making purposes. O*NET13 The Employment and Training Administration’s O*Net database is the nation’s primary source of detailed occupational information. The information in the database comes from worker surveys as well as occupation experts and analysts. The 900+ occupations in the database are based on the SOC system, although there is not a one-to-one mapping between the two. Specifically, the O*Net database separates some SOC codes into multiple occupations. For example, rather than provide information on geological and petroleum technicians, an occupation that is part of the SOC system, O*Net separates this occupation into two more detailed occupations: geophysical data technicians and geological sample test technicians. The database contains information on the knowledge, skills, and abilities, tasks, work activities, experience, educational requirements, and tools and technology associated with a given occupation. An updated version of the O*Net database is typically released annually, although information on any given occupation is updated on an as-needed basis (i.e., only a subset of occupations are updated as part of each new release). 11 For additional information on projection methods and uncertainty considerations, please refer to http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2012/01/art1full.pdf and http://www.bls.gov/opub/hom/homch13.htm. 12 For additional information on the American Community Survey, see http://www.census.gov/acs/www/. 13 For additional information on O*NET, see http://www.onetcenter.org/. Prepublication Version

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APPENDIX A 255 MINE INJURY AND WORKTIME REPORTS14 Through its Mine Injury and Worktime Reports, the Mine Safety and Health Administration provides information on employment, hours worked, and injuries for coal and mineral mining operators and contractors. The information includes “personnel directly engaged in production, cleaning, milling, shipping, development, and maintenance and repair work, including direct supervisory and technical personnel and contract mining services.”15 The figures are compiled from reports submitted by operators and contractors as required under the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, Public Law 91-173 as amended by Public Law 95- 164. The primary use of this information is to help ensure safety and health in the nation’s mining industry.16 In terms of using this information to examine the mining workforce, the primary advantage it has over the information provided by the various BLS programs discussed earlier is that it reflects both mining operators and mining contractors; the latter are generally undercounted in BLS data because of the nature of the NAICS.17 INTEGRATED POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION DATA SYSTEM18 The National Center for Education Statistics’ Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) gathers information from all U.S. educational institutions—colleges, universities, technical schools, and vocational schools—that participate in any federal student financial aid program, representing more than 6,700 institutions. In addition to information on the number of degrees and certificates conferred (i.e., completions) by degree level and field of study, the survey collects a wide variety of information from these institutions, such as institutional characteristics, enrollment, student financial aid, student persistence and success, and institutional resources. Moreover, information on completions is available by gender, race/ethnicity, and citizenship status. IPEDS reports instructional program information using the Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) taxonomy, which includes more than 1,200 programs.19 For examining the energy and mining workforce, the IPEDS database is most useful for tracking the supply of new graduates receiving degrees or certificates in fields of study that feed into energy and mining occupations. The CIP-SOC crosswalk, which relates instructional programs to occupations, can be used to identify the specific programs that refeed into energy and mining occupations. 14 For additional information on the Mine Injury and Worktime Reports, see http://www.msha.gov/accinj/accinj.htm. 15 Mine Injury and Worktime, Quarterly, January – December 2010, U.S. Department of Labor, Mine Safety and Health Administration, p. 2. 16 In addition, the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health Office of Mine Safety and Health Research uses the Mine Safety and Health Administration data to produce databases specific to the mining industry in a user- friendly format, which are available for research and other purposes. Information on the mining databases is available at http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/mining/works/default.html. 17 See Appendix B for a more detailed discussion of the shortcomings of using BLS data to examine the energy and mining workforce. 18 For additional information on the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, see http://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/. 19 A complete list of CIP codes is available at http://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/cipcode/default.aspx?y=55. Prepublication Version

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256 APPENDIX A A POSSIBLE RESEARCH INITIATIVE FOR FUTURE DECISION MAKING ON ENERGY AND MINING WORKFORCE ISSUES The key to making well-thought-out strategic decisions regarding workforce issues in energy and mining is having access to accurate and timely information. Although each of the data sources discussed in this appendix helps to paint a picture of the energy and mining workforce, collectively they fall short of creating a complete picture. The BLS and the Census Bureau provide a wealth of detailed information on the energy and mining workforce, such as industrial and occupational employment estimates and projections, and demographic characteristics such as age, gender, and race/ethnicity. However, these sources rely on the NAICS taxonomy (or derivatives of this taxonomy) to identify the industries that encompass energy and mining. As discussed in earlier chapters, the NAICS structure limits the way in which energy and mining can be examined. For example, the emerging energy sectors (e.g., solar, wind, geothermal) cannot be uniquely identified in the NAICS. Moreover, outsourcing of energy- and mining-related activities to contractors is not fully captured in the NAICS taxonomy, thus potentially undercounting energy and mining employment. To facilitate the availability of accurate and timely information about the energy and mining workforce, one possible research initiative would be to design a process to collect and analyze, on an ongoing basis, key information about the energy and mining workforce. The initiative would involve identifying  The primary users of the information and their goals and objectives in using the data;  A definition of energy and mining that meets the needs of the primary data users;  The specific data elements to capture;  The key players who would be involved with collecting, maintaining, and analyzing the data;  The role of each key player;  A timeline for implementation; and  Who would pay for the development and maintenance of the database. Prepublication Version

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APPENDIX A 257 Table A.1 Federal Data Sources That Are Most Relevant to Examining the Energy and Mining Workforce Periodicity of Program/ Information Data Collection Organization Database Availablea Scope Releases Method Primary use Bureau of Labor Current • Employment, hours, Workers covered by Monthly Survey of establishments First economic Statistics Employment and earnings for the unemployment insurance indicator of current Statistics nation, states, and laws economic trends major metropolitan each month areas • Information for the private sector is available by detailed industry Bureau of Labor Current • Employed persons Wage and salary workers, Monthly Survey of households Characteristics of Statistics Population by occupation and self-employed, and the labor force Survey demographics (e.g., unpaid family workers age, gender) • Employed persons by industry and demographics (e.g., age, gender) • Employed persons by high-level industry and high-level occupation Bureau of Labor Job Openings Estimates of job All nonagricultural Monthly Survey of establishments Demand-side Statistics and Labor openings, hires, and industries in the public indicators of labor Turnover separations by and private sectors for the shortages Survey industry and region 50 states and the District of Columbia Bureau of Labor Quarterly Employment and Workers covered by Quarterly Quarterly tax reports Comprehensive Statistics Census of wages for the nation, unemployment insurance submitted by view of Employment states, and major laws establishments employment and and Wages metropolitan areas by wages by industry program detailed industry, including the private sector and federal, state, and local governments Prepublication Version

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258 APPENDIX A Bureau of Labor Occupational • Employment Wage and salary workers Annually Survey of establishments Employment for Statistics Employment estimates by detailed in nonfarm specific Statistics occupation and establishments occupations geographical area (e.g., nation, states, metropolitan area) • Private-sector industry-specific national employment estimates by detailed occupation Bureau of Labor Employment • Projected Wage and salary workers, Every other Multiple sources Employment Statistics Projections employment by self-employed, and year including U.S. Census projections Program detailed occupation unpaid family workers Bureau, Current • Projected Population Survey, employment by Macroeconomic industry Advisers’ WUMMSIM • Projected Model of the U.S. employment by Economy, and industry and detailed Occupational occupation Employment Statistics • Projected replacement rates and job openings by detailed occupation Census Bureau American Estimates of Nation Annually Survey of households Demographic, Community characteristics of the social, housing, Survey population for the and economic nation, states, and information about cities and counties, the U.S. population including demographic, social, economic, and housing characteristics Prepublication Version

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APPENDIX A 259 Employment O*NET Occupational All 800+ occupations Typically Combination of worker Nation's primary and Training information such as included in the federal annually, surveys and occupation source of detailed Administration the knowledge, skills, Standard Occupation although experts occupational & abilities; tasks; Code (SOC) system, plus occupations information experience and an additional 100+ only updated as educational detailed occupations needed requirements associated with a given occupation Mine Safety and Mine Injury and Employment, hours Personnel directly Five times per Compiled from reports Safety and health Health Worktime worked, and injuries engaged in production, year submitted by operators in the Nation's Administration Reports for coal and mineral cleaning, milling, and contractors as mining industry mining operators and shipping, development, required under the contractors and maintenance and Federal Mine Safety and repair work, including Health Act of 1977, direct supervisory and Public Law 91-173 as technical personnel and amended by Public Law contract mining services 95-164 National Center Integrated Information from Institutions that Annually Institutional survey Information on for Education Postsecondary colleges, universities, participate in federal U.S. post- Statistics Education Data and technical and student financial aid secondary System vocational institutions, program educational including degrees and institutions certificates conferred by field of study a Does not necessarily include all of the information available through a specific program. The list reflects information that is most relevant to understanding the U.S. energy and mining workforce. Prepublication Version