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B Overview of the Energy and Mining Workforce Using Federal Data Sources This appendix addresses Task 1, which requests trends in the size, growth, and demographics of the United States energy and mining workforce, disaggregating each industry of interest—oil and gas, nuclear, nonfuel mining, coal mining, solar, wind, geothermal, and geological carbon sequestration—by sector and occupation. The future demand for and supply of workers in these industries, sectors, and occupations is also discussed, as requested in Task 3. This appendix primarily utilizes information available from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) because it is the primary federal agency responsible for collecting and disseminating information about the U.S. workforce. The agency provides information on a wide range of workforce-related topics, including employment, productivity, pay and benefits, inflation and prices, workplace injuries, consumer spending and time use, and unemployment. As an independent agency, the BLS is the single best source of objective information about the U.S. energy and mining workforce. However, information from the BLS (and other federal agencies) utilizes standardized coding schemes, such as standardized industry and occupation classifications, that limit the way in which the energy and mining workforce can be examined. These limitations are discussed. Other data sources utilized in this appendix include information from the Department of Education’s National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and the Department of Labor’s Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). This appendix also provides workforce information on the primary federal agencies responsible for management and oversight of energy and mining based on FedScope, an online tool that enables users to generate information on the federal civilian workforce. A PRIMER ON THE NORTH AMERICAN INDUSTRY CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM1 The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) is the standard industrial classification system used by statistical agencies, such as the BLS. The NAICS replaced the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) System in the late 1990s. Information presented in this appendix is based on the 2007 NAICS taxonomy, the most recent version available.2 Each industry in the system is assigned a six-digit NAICS code. The first two digits of the code designate the economic sector, the third digit designates the subsector, the fourth digit designates the industry group, the fifth digit designates the NAICS industry, and the sixth digit designates the national industry. National industry is the narrowest industry categorization available in the 1 Source for the information in this primer: U.S. Census Bureau, North American Industry Classification System, (http://www.census.gov/eos/www/naics/). 2 See the following for information on the 2012 NAICS: "Office of Management and Budget: North American Industry Classification System; Revision for 2012; Notice." Federal Register 76 (17 August 2011): 51240-51243. 260 Prepublication Version

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APPENDIX B 261 NAICS. There are more than 1,000 six-digit NAICS codes.3 The following is an example for NAICS 221113 (Nuclear Electric Power Generation): 221113 = Nuclear Electric Power Generation (national industry) 22111 = Electric Power Generation (NAICS industry) 2211 = Electric Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution (industry group) 221 = Utilities (subsector) 22 = Utilities (sector) A NAICS code is assigned to an establishment, not to an organization or business, and is based on the primary business activity at the establishment. According to the Census Bureau, an establishment is “generally a single physical location where business is conducted or where services or industrial operations are performed (e.g., factory, mill, store, hotel, movie theater, mine, farm, airline terminal, sales office, warehouse, or central administrative office).”4 Thus, if an organization or business has more than one establishment, then a NAICS code will be assigned to each of its establishments. The primary business activity of an establishment is determined in theory by the processes used to produce goods or services (i.e., it is a production- oriented concept). In practice, a government agency will typically use revenue, value of shipments, or employment to identify the primary business activity of an establishment. A CONCEPTUAL ISSUE: HOW BROADLY TO DEFINE ENERGY AND MINING To make effective use of BLS information to paint a picture of the U.S. energy and mining workforce, an important first step is to identify the relevant NAICS codes. In attempting this exercise, a key conceptual question arises—namely, how broadly to define energy and mining. For example, a narrow definition might include only the following two NAICS sectors:  NAICS 21: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction  NAICS 22: Utilities A very broad definition of energy and mining might also include industries within the following NAICS sectors:  NAICS 23: Construction (e.g., Oil and Gas Pipeline and Related Structures Construction)  NAICS 31-33: Manufacturing (e.g., Petroleum Refineries)  NAICS 42: Wholesale Trade (e.g., Industrial Machinery and Equipment Merchant Wholesalers)  NAICS 44-45: Retail Trade (e.g., Gasoline Stations)  NAICS 48-49: Transportation and Warehousing (e.g., Pipeline Transportation of Natural Gas) 3 A comprehensive list of 2007 NAICS codes can be found at http://www.census.gov/cgi- bin/sssd/naics/naicsrch?chart=2007. 4 U.S. Census Bureau, North American Industry Classification System, Frequently Asked Questions (see http://www.census.gov/eos/www/naics/faqs/faqs.html). Prepublication Version

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262 APPENDIX B  NAICS 53: Real Estate and Rental and Leasing (e.g., Construction, Mining, and Forestry Machinery and Equipment Rental and Leasing)  NAICS 54: Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services (e.g., Engineering services)  NAICS 81: Other Services (e.g., Commercial and Industrial Machinery and Equipment (except Automotive and Electronic) Repair and Maintenance) The following two considerations were used to identify the energy and mining NAICS sectors to examine in this appendix: 1. How central the sector is to the energy and mineral security requirements of the United States. For example, wholesale and retail trade, equipment leasing, and equipment and machinery repair are less central to energy and mineral security requirements than activities further up the supply chain, such as extraction, power generation, pipeline construction, and refining. 2. The difficulty of determining what percent of an industry is related directly to energy and mining. For example, Engineering Services is a six-digit NAICS code (the narrowest possible) and encompasses many different types of engineering services in addition to energy- and mining-related engineering services (e.g., chemical engineering services, environmental engineering services, traffic engineering consulting services). It would be very difficult to determine the fraction of the workforce within this NAICS code that relates specifically to energy and mining. On the basis of the above considerations, the following NAICS sectors are included in this appendix:  NAICS 21: Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction  NAICS 22: Utilities  NAICS 23: Construction  NAICS 31-33: Manufacturing  NAICS 48-49: Transportation and Warehousing A PRACTICAL ISSUE: IDENTIFYING RELEVANT ENERGY AND MINING NAICS The section above defines energy and mining from a conceptual point of view as consisting of mining, quarrying, and extraction activities; utilities activities; construction activities; manufacturing activities; and transportation and warehousing activities. However, examining the size, growth, and demographics of the energy and mining workforce using BLS information requires the identification of the specific NAICS codes within each of these sectors that are related to energy and mining. For example, in addition to electric power generation and natural gas distribution, the utilities sector (NAICS 22) includes water supply and irrigation systems activities and sewage treatment facilities, which are not related to energy and mining. The following NAICS categories define energy and mining for the purposes of collecting workforce information:  NAICS 211: Oil and Gas Extraction Prepublication Version

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APPENDIX B 263  NAICS 212: Mining (except Oil and Gas)  NAICS 213: Support Activities for Mining5  NAICS 2211: Electric Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution  NAICS 2212: Natural Gas Distribution  NAICS 22133: Steam and Air-Conditioning Supply6  NAICS 2371: Utility System Construction7  NAICS 324: Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing  NAICS 331: Primary Metal Manufacturing  NAICS 33313: Mining and Oil and Gas Field Machinery Manufacturing  NAICS 333611: Turbine and Turbine Generator Set Units Manufacturing  NAICS 486: Pipeline Transportation In addition to examining the energy and mining workforce as a whole, another objective of this task is to collect workforce information for each of the eight industries outlined in the statement of task: oil and gas, nuclear, nonfuel mining, coal mining, solar, wind, geothermal, and geological carbon sequestration. Table B.1 outlines how NAICS codes have been mapped to the eight industries outlined in the statement of task.8 In some cases, a higher-level NAICS code is used to identify an industry of interest (e.g., three-digit NAICS); in other cases, a six-digit NAICS code is used because of overlap across industries. For example, because the entire “Oil and Gas Extraction” subsector (NAICS 211) applies only to oil and gas, the three-digit NAICS code is used to capture this area. On the other hand, “Support Activities for Mining” (NAICS 213) includes NAICS categories that are relevant to oil and gas as well as to mining. Thus, six- digit NAICS codes are included to reflect these different industries (e.g., NAICS 213112, Support Activities for Oil and Gas Operations; NAICS 213114, Support Activities for Metal Mining). As an example of how to read Table B.1, the following NAICS categories are identified as relevant to nonfuel mining:  NAICS 2122: Metal Ore Mining  NAICS 2123: Nonmetallic Mineral Mining and Quarrying  NAICS 213114: Support Activities for Metal Mining  NAICS 213115: Support Activities for Nonmetallic Minerals (except Fuels) Mining  NAICS 331: Primary Metal Manufacturing  NAICS 333131: Mining Machinery and Equipment Manufacturing 5 Establishments in NAICS 213 provide “support services, on a contract or fee basis, required for the mining and quarrying of minerals and for the extraction of oil and gas.” These activities “are also often performed in-house by mining operators.” Source: U.S. Census Bureau, North American Industry Classification System, 2007 NAICS Descriptions (http://www.census.gov/cgi-bin/sssd/naics/naicsrch?code=213&search=2007%20NAICS%20Search). 6 NAICS 22133 includes geothermal steam production. 7 NAICS 2371 includes some activities that are not energy and mining, such as communication line construction and water and sewer line construction. However, because the 6-digit NAICS codes for these activities are combined with activities that are relevant to energy and mining, such as geothermal drilling and power plant construction, there is no way to distinguish them using the NAICS taxonomy. 8 This mapping reflects input from the Census Bureau, although the final mapping was determined by the committee. Prepublication Version

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264 APPENDIX B Note, however, that not all of the NAICS codes in the table are uniquely mapped to one of the eight industries. For example, NAICS 22112 (Electric Power Transmission, Control, and Distribution) is related to oil and gas, nuclear, coal mining, solar, wind, and geothermal. Moreover, none of the NAICS codes matches to geological carbon sequestration.9 NAICS codes for the emerging industries—solar, wind, and geothermal—overlap substantially with each other and none of the industries maps uniquely to a NAICS code.10 On the other hand, with the exception of nuclear, NAICS categories match up fairly well to the more mature industries—oil and gas, nonfuel mining, and coal mining—with only a modest amount of overlap. 9 The Census Bureau suggested that geologic carbon sequestration is a secondary activity that would be difficult to classify since an establishment is classified to a NAICS code according to its primary activity. 10 The 2012 version of the NAICS taxonomy includes distinct codes for Solar Electric Power Generation, Wind Electric Power Generation, Geothermal Electric Power Generation, and Biomass Electric Power Generation. Prepublication Version

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APPENDIX B 265 TABLE B.1 Mapping of Energy and Mining NAICS Codes to the Eight Industries Outlined in the Statement of Task Oil Geol NAICS NAICS and Nonfuel Coal Carbon Code Title Gas Nuclear Mining Mining Solar Wind Geoth Seq Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction Sector (NAICS 21) 211 Oil and Gas Extraction x 2121 Coal Mining x 2122 Metal Ore Mining x 2123 Nonmetallic Mineral Mining and Quarrying x 213111 Drilling Oil and Gas Wells x 213112 Support Activities for Oil and Gas Operations x 213113 Support Activities for Coal Mining x 213114 Support Activities for Metal Mining x 213115 Support Activities for Nonmetallic Minerals (except Fuels) Mining x Utilities Sector (NAICS 22) 221112 Fossil Fuel Electric Power Generation x x 221113 Nuclear Electric Power Generation x 221119 Other Electric Power Generation x x x 22112 Electric Power Transmission, Control, and Distribution x x x x x x 2212 Natural Gas Distribution x 22133 Steam and Air-Conditioning Supply x Construction Sector (NAICS 23) 23711 Water and Sewer Line and Related Structures Construction x 23712 Oil and Gas Pipeline and Related Structures Construction x 23713 Power and Communication Line and Related Structures Construction x x x x Manufacturing Sector (NAICS 31-33) 32411 Petroleum Refineries x 331 Primary Metal Manufacturing x 333131 Mining Machinery and Equipment Manufacturing x x 333132 Oil and Gas Field Machinery and Equipment Manufacturing x 333611 Turbine and Turbine Generator Set Units Manufacturing x x x Transportation and Warehousing Sector (NAICS 48-49) 486 Pipeline Transportation x Prepublication Version

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266 APPENDIX B The previous exercise suggests that BLS data are not particularly useful for understanding the workforces in the emerging energy industries. However, BLS data are useful for understanding the oil and gas, nuclear, nonfuel mining, and coal mining workforces. ENERGY AND MINING WORKFORCE: EMPLOYMENT The BLS Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages program provides employment information for the United States (as well as states and major metropolitan areas) by detailed industry. The program includes workers covered by unemployment insurance laws, which represents 99.7 percent of wage and salary civilian employment (BLS, .11 The program excludes self-employed workers and collects information from quarterly tax reports submitted by establishments. Table B.2 presents 2010 average annual employment by sector for each energy and mining NAICS code under consideration. As defined here, employment in energy and mining exceeds 2.25 million. The largest industries are electric power generation, transmission, and distribution (21.7 percent of total employment); utility system construction (17 percent); primary metal manufacturing (16 percent); and support activities for mining (12.9 percent). The vast majority of energy and mining employment (>95 percent) is concentrated in the private sector. Governments, primarily local, play a modest role in electric power generation, transmission, and distribution; natural gas distribution; and utility system construction. TABLE B.2 Average Annual U.S. Energy and Mining Employment, by NAICS Code and Sector, 2010 NAICS NAICS All Private Federal State Local Code Title Sectors Sector Gov't Gov't Gov't 211 Oil and Gas Extraction 158,423 158,423 212 Mining (except Oil and Gas) 203,766 203,498 268 213 Support Activities for Mining 289,709 289,709 2211 Electric Power Generation, 489,233 395,960 12,801 3,849 76,623 Transmission, and Distribution 2212 Natural Gas Distribution 115,138 108,605 6,533 22133 Steam and Air-Conditioning Supply 2,191 1,935 256 2371 Utility System Construction 382,267 380,665 5 1,597 Petroleum and Coal Products 324 110,972 110,972 Manufacturing 331 Primary Metal Manufacturing 361,211 361,211 Mining and Oil and Gas Field 33313 70,335 70,335 Machinery Manufacturing Turbine and Turbine Generator Set 333611 26,646 26,646 Units Manufacturing 486 Pipeline Transportation 43,151 42,265 886 TOTAL 2,253,042 2,150,224 12,806 3,849 86,163 NOTE: A blank cell indicates that data are not disclosable or are not applicable. SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. 11 Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, Frequently Asked Questions, http://www.bls.gov/cew/cewfaq.htm. Prepublication Version

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APPENDIX B 267 Table B.3 shows average annual energy and mining employment for 2005-2010. While total energy and mining employment remained virtually unchanged since 2005, employment grew at an annual rate of 3.2 percent12 from 2005 until 2008 and fell at an annual rate of -4.7 percent from 2008 until 2010, with the latter likely due to the recession that began at the end of 2007.13 Despite the recession, some industries have seen increases in employment since 2005. Most notably, employment in the turbine and turbine generator set units manufacturing industry, which “comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing turbines (except aircraft); and complete turbine generator set units, such as steam, hydraulic, gas, and wind,”14 grew at an annual rate of 6.5 percent from 2005 to 2010. Moreover, the following industries grew at an annual rate of more than 4.5 percent: support activities for mining (5.3 percent); mining and oil and gas field machinery manufacturing (4.8 percent); and oil and gas extraction (4.7 percent). Declines in employment were concentrated in primary metal manufacturing, which experienced a decline in employment of more than 100,000 from 2005 to 2010. Tables C.1, C.2, C.3, and C.4 in Appendix C show average annual energy and mining employment by sector for 2005-2010. TABLE B.3 Average Annual U.S. Energy and Mining Employment, by NAICS Code, 2005- 2010 NAICS NAICS 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Code Title 211 Oil and Gas Extraction 125,818 134,858 146,081 160,081 160,688 158,423 Mining (except Oil and 212 211,880 219,691 219,932 223,149 207,118 203,766 Gas) Support Activities for 213 223,277 262,498 294,264 330,168 273,910 289,709 Mining 2211 Electric Power 489,022 484,680 488,106 495,528 498,785 489,233 Generation, Transmission, and Distribution 2212 Natural Gas Distribution 115,394 115,170 114,941 115,860 116,785 115,138 Steam and Air- 22133 2,023 1,887 1,881 1,965 2,106 2,191 Conditioning Supply Utility System 2371 394,744 425,559 446,014 448,797 395,257 382,267 Construction Petroleum and Coal 324 112,241 113,056 115,169 116,248 114,506 110,972 Products Manufacturing Primary Metal 331 464,836 463,139 455,683 443,867 363,744 361,211 Manufacturing Mining and Oil and Gas 33313 Field Machinery 55,692 63,627 71,677 75,690 71,574 70,335 Manufacturing 12 Growth rates in this chapter are calculated using the compound annual growth rate formula: (Ending value ÷ Beginning value)1/N – 1, where N is the number of periods that have elapsed between the beginning and ending values. 13 The National Bureau of Economic Research determined that the recent recession began in December 2007. Source: Determination of the December 2007 Peak in Economic Activity, 11 December 2008, National Bureau of Economic Research, Business Cycle Dating Committee. 14 See 2007 NAICS definition of 333611 Turbine and Turbine Generator Set Units Manufacturing (http://www.census.gov/cgi-bin/sssd/naics/naicsrch?code=333611&search=2007%20NAICS%20Search). Prepublication Version

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268 APPENDIX B Turbine and Turbine 333611 Generator Set Units 19,484 19,797 21,663 25,037 26,093 26,646 Manufacturing 486 Pipeline Transportation 39,628 40,363 41,216 42,042 42,285 43,151 TOTAL 2,254,039 2,344,325 2,416,627 2,478,432 2,272,851 2,253,042 SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. Additional tabulations by the National Research Council. The primary advantage of using the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages to examine current and historic employment is the level of industry detail available. Specifically, employment information is available at the six-digit-level NAICS code, which facilitates the disaggregation of employment into the industries of interest for this study. A drawback is its exclusion of self-employed workers, which will result in an undercount of employment in energy and mining. The BLS Current Population Survey includes self-employed workers, although with less industry detail available. This survey of households captures information by industry based on the 2007 Census industry classification system. The system is derived from the 2007 NAICS taxonomy; however, there is not a one-to-one mapping between the 2007 Census industry codes and the 2007 NAICS codes. Using a crosswalk that maps the two classification systems, Table B.4 shows 2010 employment counts for the energy and mining Census industries that are generally comparable to the energy and mining NAICS industries.15 Table C.5 in Appendix C provides a mapping of energy and mining NAICS industries to Census industries and outlines key differences. Across the available industries, employment in energy and mining is more than 300,000 higher using the Current Population Survey than the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. This difference is presumably due in part to the inclusion of self-employed workers in the former survey. Moreover, in five of the seven industries, the Current Population Survey employment count figure exceeds that from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. On a relative basis, these differences are largest in petroleum and coal products manufacturing and support activities for mining. Note, however, that there are other differences between the two surveys that could help explain these observed differences. For example, because the Current Population Survey is a household survey, whereas the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages is an establishment survey, the industry information provided in each might differ, resulting in differences in industry classification. 15 The full crosswalk can be found at http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsoccind.htm. Prepublication Version

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APPENDIX B 269 TABLE B.4 Employment for Energy and Mining Census Industries That Are Comparable to Energy and Mining NAICS Industries, 2010 2010 employment (annual average) Comparable NAICS NAICS Quarterly Census Current Code Title Census Code(s) Population of Employment Survey and Wages 211 Oil and Gas Extraction 0370 158,423 75,000 212 Mining (except Oil and Gas) 0380, 0390, 0470 203,766 204,000 213 Support Activities for Mining 0490 289,709 440,000 Electric Power Generation, Transmission 2211 0570 489,233 670,000 and Distribution 2212 Natural Gas Distribution 0580, 0590 115,138 97,000 Petroleum and Coal Products 324 2070-2090 110,972 190,000 Manufacturing 486 Pipeline Transportation 6270 43,151 56,000 TOTAL 1,410,392 1,732,000 SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages and the BLS Current Population Survey. Additional tabulations by the National Research Council. The BLS also produces employment projections by industry through its Employment Projections Program.16 The most recent estimates project employment in 2020 using a base year of 2010. These projections are meant to reflect long-term trends in the economy and assume that the economy will be at full employment in 2020.17 The BLS notes that “given the severity of the most recent recession and the slowness of recovery to date . . . the current set of projections faces more uncertainty than usual” (Sommers and Franklin, 2012, p. 5), suggesting that the projections need to be used with caution. Projections are not available for all of the energy and mining NAICS codes discussed in this appendix and, for those available, the projections are available for private-sector wage and salary workers. Table B.5 presents employment projections for the energy and mining NAICS codes for which projections are available.18 Total private sector employment across these energy and mining NAICS codes is expected to grow by 84,300 between 2010 and 2020, which translates into an annual growth rate of 0.4 percent. However, specific industries are expected to see more sizable changes in employment. The industry expected to see the largest gain in employment is utility system construction, which is expected to experience an increase in employment of more than 125,000, amounting to an annual growth rate of 2.8 percent. The electric power generation, transmission and distribution industry is expected to experience the largest absolute decline in employment (more than 35,000 jobs), while the pipeline transportation industry is expected to experience the largest relative decline in employment (-2.6 percent per year between 2010 and 2020). 16 The Employment Projections Program includes wage and salary workers, self-employed workers, and unpaid family workers. Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections Program, Projections Methodology, http://www.bls.gov/emp/ep_projections_methods.htm. 17 For a detailed discussion of the projection methodology, see the following: Overview of projections to 2020, Dixie Sommers and James C. Franklin, Monthly Labor Review, January 2012, pp. 3-20. 18 These NAICS represent more than 95 percent of 2010 energy and mining employment as defined in this chapter. Prepublication Version

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270 APPENDIX B TABLE B.5 Private-Sector U.S. Energy and Mining 2010 Employment and 2020 Projections, by NAICS Code NAICS NAICS 2010 2020 Code Title (base year) (projected) 211 Oil and Gas Extraction 158,900 182,100 212 Mining (except Oil and Gas) 202,900 203,200 213 Support Activities for Mining 294,100 295,400 2211 Electric Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution 396,900 361,400 2212 Natural Gas Distribution 108,000 95,800 2371 Utility System Construction 390,100 515,500 324 Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing 114,000 100,000 331 Primary Metal Manufacturing 360,700 366,300 486 Pipeline Transportation 42,400 32,600 TOTAL 2,068,000 2,152,300 SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics Employment Projections Program. ENERGY AND MINING WORKFORCE: DEMOGRAPHICS Through its Current Population Survey, the BLS also captures demographic information about the U.S. workforce. Table B.6 shows key demographic information for the energy and mining workforce. As a comparison, the top row of the table provides demographic information for the U.S. workforce, age 16 years and older. The energy and mining workforce is predominantly male. The highest representation of women is found in the natural gas distribution industry (28.4 percent); the lowest is found in coal mining (6 percent). Moreover, the energy and mining workforce is generally less racially and ethnically diverse than the U.S. workforce as a whole.19 This lack of demographic diversity is most prominent in coal mining. The most demographic diversity is found in the natural gas distribution industry. The energy and mining workforce is also generally older than the overall U.S. workforce. The industries with the highest median age are nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying (47.8 years old); natural gas distribution (47.6 years old); and water, steam, air-conditioning, and irrigation systems (47.4 years old). Moreover, a majority of the energy and mining industries have more workers age 45 and older than workers under age 45, suggesting that the loss of talent due to retirements over the next 20 years is likely to disproportionately affect energy and mining. This phenomenon is most notable in the natural gas distribution industry, in which 40.2 percent of workers are under the age of 45 (compared with 56.1 percent for the U.S. workforce as a whole). Those industries with the lowest median age are support activities for mining (40.9 years old) and electric and gas as 19 Under federal guidelines released in 2003, individuals are first asked to identify whether they consider themselves Hispanic/Latino (an ethnicity designation) and second to identify their race (White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander). Thus, in the tables from the Current Population Survey included in this chapter, Hispanic/Latino ethnicity and the race categories shown are not mutually exclusive. For additional information, see the following: Mary Bowler, Randy E. Ilg, Stephen Miller, Ed Robison, and Anne Polivka, Revisions to the Current Population Survey Effective in January 2003, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey. Prepublication Version

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288 APPENDIX B TABLE B.18 Average Annual U.S. Nonfuel Mining Employment, by NAICS Code, 2005-2010 NAICS NAICS 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Code Title 2122 Metal Ore Mining 29,250 31,883 35,901 40,156 34,100 35,953 Nonmetallic Mineral Mining and 2123 108,180 109,160 107,428 101,899 91,018 86,687 Quarrying 213114 Support Activities for Metal Mining 2,315 2,582 2,896 3,357 2,538 3,118 Support Activities for Nonmetal 213115 1,773 1,888 2,216 2,428 2,064 2,290 Minerals (except Fuels) Mining 331 Primary Metal Manufacturing 464,836 463,139 455,683 443,867 363,744 361,211 TOTAL 606,354 608,652 604,124 591,707 493,464 489,259 SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. Additional tabulations by the National Research Council. Private-sector employment projections (see Table B.19) are available for a subset of the nonfuel mining NAICS codes: metal ore mining, nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying, and primary metal manufacturing. Employment in the latter two industries is expected to increase by 17,200 between 2010 and 2020, but it is expected to decline by 8,300 in metal ore mining, resulting in a net increase of 8,900 jobs in nonfuel mining. TABLE B.19 Private-Sector U.S. Nonfuel Mining 2010 Employment and 2020 Projections, by NAICS Code NAICS NAICS 2010 2020 Code Title (base year) (projected) 2122 Metal Ore Mining 36,400 28,100 2123 Nonmetallic Mineral Mining and Quarrying 85,900 97,500 331 Primary Metal Manufacturing 360,700 366,300 TOTAL 483,000 491,900 SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Employment Projections Program. Table C.23 in Appendix C shows demographic information for a subset of the nonfuel mining workforce where information is available.33 In comparison with the overall U.S. workforce, women make up a relatively small percentage of the nonfuel mining workforce. The highest representation is in foundries (16.3 percent female) and the lowest is in nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying (7.9 percent). The latter industry also employs few Blacks/African Americans (0.1 percent) and Asians (0.8 percent). Hispanics constitute a relatively large share of the aluminum production and processing workforce (22.8 percent) and a notably small share of the nonferrous metal (except aluminum) production and processing workforce (5.3 percent). The nonfuel mining workforce is also older than the overall U.S. workforce. The industry with the oldest workforce is aluminum production and processing with a median age of 48.2. Moreover, close to 59 percent of the aluminum production and processing workforce is 45 years old or older. Tables C.25, C.26, and C.27 in Appendix C provide 2010 employment estimates for the 20 largest occupations in the metal ore mining, nonmetal mining, and primary metal manufacturing industries, respectively. The largest occupations in the metal ore mining industry 33 Demographic information is by Census industries. See Table C.24 in Appendix C for a mapping of nonfuel mining NAICS industries to Census industries. Prepublication Version

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APPENDIX B 289 are operating engineers and other construction equipment operators (8.92 percent of industry employment); mobile heavy equipment mechanics, except engines (8.4 percent); and heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers (5.78 percent). In nonmetal mining, the most common occupations are petroleum pump system operators, refinery operators, and gaugers (15.9 percent); gas plant operators (8.46 percent); and industrial machinery mechanics (5.55 percent). The largest primary metal manufacturing occupations are first-line supervisors of production and operating workers (4.75 percent); rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic (4.61 percent); and maintenance and repair workers, general (4.18 percent). In addition to the BLS, the MSHA also collects workforce information on the nonfuel mining industry. Specifically, the agency collects employment information (including office workers) related to metal mining, nonmetal mining, stone mining, and sand and gravel mining. These figures show employment of 225,643 in 2010 (MSHA, 2011b, Tables 2 and 6). Of this total, 160,146 are employed as nonfuel mining operators; the remaining 65,497 are nonfuel mining contractors. The comparable figure from the BLS Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages for 2010 is 128,048,34 suggesting that the latter figures are undercounting nonfuel mining employment. This undercounting is likely due in large part to limitations associated with the NAICS taxonomy that results in the undercounting of contractor employment. In particular, if a nonfuel mining contractor engages in more than one activity and the primary activity is not the provision of nonfuel mining services, the NAICS code for this establishment will not fall under nonfuel mining and the corresponding employment will not be included as part of nonfuel mining. Coal Mining NAICS that are unique to coal mining reflect coal mining activities and support activities for coal mining. The latter support activities are similar to activities performed by coal mining operators, but are performed on a contract or fee basis. Table B.20 shows 2010 average annual coal mining employment by sector. Table B.21 shows average annual employment across sectors from 2005 to 2010. Employment in these two coal mining activities totals 89,252, all of which is in the private sector. Since 2005, coal mining employment has grown at an annual rate of 1.9 percent, representing an increase in employment of about 8,000 over the period 2005- 2010. Unlike the energy and mining industries discussed above, coal mining did not experience a decline in employment during the recent recession. By 2020, however, private-sector employment in the coal mining industry (excluding support activities) is expected to decrease modestly to 77,500 (see Table B.22). 34 This figure reflects metal ore mining (NAICS 2122), nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying (NAICS 2123), support activities for metal mining (NAICS 213114), and support activities for nonmetal minerals (except fuels) mining (NAICS 213115). Prepublication Version

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290 APPENDIX B TABLE B.20 Average Annual U.S. Coal Mining Employment, by NAICS Code and Sector, 2010 NAICS NAICS All Private Federal State Local Code Title Sectors Sector Gov't Gov't Gov't 2121 Coal Mining 81,126 81,126 213113 Support Activities for Coal Mining 8,126 8,126 TOTAL 89,252 89,252 NOTE: A blank cell indicates that data are not disclosable or are not applicable. SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. TABLE B.21 Average Annual U.S. Coal Mining Employment, by NAICS Code, 2005-2010 NAICS NAICS 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Code Title 2121 Coal Mining 74,450 78,648 76,604 81,095 82,000 81,126 213113 Support Activities for Coal Mining 6,773 7,083 7,527 8,109 7,963 8,126 TOTAL 81,223 85,731 84,131 89,204 89,963 89,252 NOTE: All coal mining employment is in the private sector. SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. Additional tabulations by the National Research Council. TABLE B.22 Private-Sector U.S. Coal Mining 2010 Employment and 2020 Projections, by NAICS Code NAICS NAICS 2010 2020 Code Title (base year) (projected) 2121 Coal Mining 80,600 77,500 TOTAL 80,600 77,500 SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics Employment Projections Program. Table C.28 in Appendix C shows demographic information for the coal mining industry workforce.35 In comparison with the overall U.S. workforce, the coal mining industry has few women and little racial and ethnic diversity. Women make up 6 percent of the workforce, while Black/African Americans and Hispanic/Latino workers each constitute less than 0.5 percent of the workforce (there are too few Asians to report). The median age in this industry is 46.4, with slightly more than 51 percent of the workforce age 45 or older. Table C.30 in Appendix C provides 2010 private-sector employment estimates for the 20 largest occupations in the coal mining industry (excluding support activities). These occupations encompass more than 78 percent of total employment in this industry. The three largest occupations are operating engineers and other construction equipment operators (10.89 percent of total employment); continuous mining machine operators (10.67 percent); and roof bolters, mining (6.69 percent). In addition to the nonfuel mining industry, MSHA also collects workforce information on the coal mining industry. The agency collects employment information (including office workers) related to underground mines, surface mines, preparation plants, and independent shops/yards. The 2010 figures show total operator employment of 89,209 and total contractor 35 Demographic information is by Census industries. See Table C.29 in Appendix C for a mapping of coal mining NAICS industries to Census industries. Prepublication Version

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APPENDIX B 291 employment of 46,324 (MSHA, 2011b, Tables 1 and 5). The comparable 2010 figure based on the BLS Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages is 89,252.36 As with nonfuel mining, these results suggest that the BLS figures undercount coal mining employment, likely because of the undercounting of contractor employment. SHORTCOMINGS OF BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS DATA The primary shortcoming of using BLS data to examine the energy and mining workforce is limitations of the NAICS, the standard industrial classification system used by the BLS and other federal statistical agencies. The system was designed to provide “uniformity and comparability in the presentation of . . . statistical data”37 across federal agencies. Although this uniformity and comparability can be useful, it constrains the way in which industries can be examined. The dominant constraint as it relates to this study is the way in which the NAICS system handles the emerging energy sectors that are relevant to this study, namely, solar, wind, geothermal, and geological carbon sequestration. None of these emerging industries is represented by unique NAICS codes, making it unfeasible to examine the workforce in each of these areas using BLS data. This limitation may be rectified over time as NAICS codes are updated to reflect the changing nature of the U.S. economy’s industrial makeup. For example, in the 2007 version of the system, NAICS 221119 (Other Electric Power Generation) includes solar, wind, and geothermal energy. In the 2012 version, separate NAICS codes are available for solar electric power generation, wind electric power generation, and geothermal electric power generation. It will be several years, however, before these changes make their way into all of the data sources available from the BLS and other agencies. Another constraint imposed by the NAICS system is the way in which NAICS codes are assigned. As mentioned earlier, NAICS codes are assigned to an establishment. If an establishment engages in more than one activity, a single NAICS code is assigned on the basis of the primary activity at that establishment. As an example, if an establishment engages in the processing of natural gas as its primary activity, but also engages in carbon capture and storage as a secondary activity, the NAICS code for this establishment will reflect only the natural gas processing. Moreover, information captured about this establishment, such as employment, will be allocated to the primary NAICS code. Since geological carbon sequestration is often a secondary activity, employment information for this emerging industry will be difficult to estimate using the NAICS code system. A related constraint of the NAICS system is the outsourcing of energy- and mining-related activities. If an energy- and mining-related task is outsourced or contracted out to an establishment whose primary activity is not the provision of energy and mining services, the NAICS code for this establishment will not fall under the energy and mining umbrella. In such a case, employment related to the provision of energy and mining services will not be included in energy and mining employment counts, thus undercounting employment. As an example, establishments engaged in energy and mining-related engineering services (e.g., petroleum engineering services, mining engineering services) are classified as part of the more generic engineering services NAICS code. Another example is staffing companies 36 This figure reflects coal mining (NAICS 2121) and support activities for coal mining (NAICS 213113). 37 U.S. Census Bureau, North American Industry Classification System, Frequently Asked Questions (see http://www.census.gov/eos/www/naics/faqs/faqs.html). Prepublication Version

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292 APPENDIX B that provide workers to companies that engage in energy and mining activities. In both cases, these workers would not be classified as part of energy and mining. FEDERAL AGENCIES RESPONSIBLE FOR OVERSIGHT OF ENERGY AND MINING There are a wide variety of federal agencies responsible for management and oversight of energy and mining. Some of these agencies are dedicated solely to energy and mining, such as MSHA and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, whereas others engage in a number of activities, a subset of which are related to energy and mining, such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the Bureau of Land Management. The following are key federal agencies responsible for management and oversight of energy and mining:  Bureau of Indian Affairs;  Bureau of Land Management;  Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement;38  Department of Energy;  Federal Energy Regulatory Commission  Mine Safety and Health Administration;  National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health;  Nuclear Regulatory Commission;  Occupational Safety and Health Administration;  Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement;  Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration; and  U.S. Geological Survey. Workforce information for these agencies has been compiled from FedScope, an online tool available from the U.S. Office of Personnel Management that enables users to generate information on the federal civilian workforce.39 An exception is the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, which is not reported separately in FedScope.40 Table B.23 provides employment information for these federal agencies as of the fiscal year-end for 2007- 2011 (note that historical information is not available for all agencies). 38 On October 1, 2011, the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement was replaced by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement. Since workforce information is not yet available for these two new agencies, this chapter reports workforce information for the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement. 39 FedScope can be accessed at http://www.fedscope.opm.gov/. 40 The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health is reported in FedScope as part of the Centers for Disease Control. Prepublication Version

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APPENDIX B 293 TABLE B.23 Employment for Key Federal Agencies Responsible for Management and Oversight of Energy and Mining, Fiscal Years 2007-2011 Agency 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Bureau of Indian Affairs 9,432 9,136 9,256 9,420 9,138 Bureau of Land Management 11,344 11,413 11,779 11,846 11,471 Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and 1,619 1,643 1,695 1,769 1,182 Enforcement Department of Energy 14,945 15,448 15,826 16,625 14,893 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 1,488 Mine Safety and Health Administration 2,260 2,321 2,394 2,351 2,330 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Healtha 1,200 Nuclear Regulatory Commission 3,750 4,080 4,151 4,211 4,111 Occupational Safety and Health Administration 2,076 2,087 2,126 2,291 2,272 Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 531 523 524 528 519 Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 363 363 375 430 444 U.S. Geological Survey 8,750 8,875 9,016 9,246 9,078 TOTAL (excluding Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 55,070 55,889 57,142 58,717 55,438 and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) TOTAL 58,126 a Employment Information for 2011 is from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Web site and reflects the approximate number of scientists employed at the agency (see http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/about.html). NOTE: Employment is as of the fiscal year-end (September 30), except as noted. A blank cell indicates that information is not available. SOURCE: FedScope (except as noted). Despite the recent recession, employment in these agencies generally increased from 2007 to 2010. On a relative basis, the agencies with the largest annual growth in employment over this period were the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (5.8 percent annual growth), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (3.9 percent), and the Department of Energy (3.6 percent). However, except for the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, employment fell from 2010 to 2011 in the remaining agencies for which historical employment information is available. The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement and the Department of Energy experienced the largest declines (−33.2 percent and −10.4 percent, respectively). For these latter two agencies, as well as the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement, 2011 employment levels fell below 2007 levels. Table B.24 provides demographic information for each agency under consideration as of the fiscal year end 2011. Generally speaking, the workforces in the federal agencies that oversee energy and mining are more diverse than the energy and mining workforces. Compared with the U.S. workforce as a whole, however, these agencies tend to have relatively low female representation and, for certain agencies, relatively low minority representation. An exception is the Bureau of Indian Affairs which is 53.8 percent female and 89.4 percent minority. The agencies with the lowest female representation are MSHA (23.6 percent), the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (32.4 percent), and the Bureau of Land Management (35.7 percent). Those with the lowest minority representation are MSHA (9.0 percent), the U.S. Geological Survey (12.3 percent), and the Bureau of Land Management (15.7 percent). Note Prepublication Version

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294 APPENDIX B that MSHA has both the lowest female representation and the lowest minority representation of these agencies. The lack of diversity in this agency mimics the lack of diversity in the mining industry that was discussed earlier in the appendix. The federal agency workforces that oversee energy and mining are considerably older than the energy and mining workforce and the overall U.S. workforce. In all of the agencies under consideration, more than 50 percent of the workforce is 45 years old or older; in most of the agencies this figure exceeds 60 percent. The oldest workforce is in MSHA where more than 75 percent of the workforce is 45 years old or older, with more than 40 percent between 55 and 64 years old. Prepublication Version

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APPENDIX B 295 TABLE B.24 Demographic Characteristics of Employees at Key Federal Agencies Responsible for the Management and Oversight of Energy and Mining, 2011 65 Years < 20 20-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 and Female Minority Years Years Years Years Years Years Over Agency (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) Bureau of Indian Affairs 53.8 89.4 0.0 1.5 12.6 22.0 30.4 27.9 5.5 Bureau of Land Management 35.7 15.7 1.0 6.0 20.7 19.6 25.2 24.9 2.6 Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and 45.1 20.8 0.2 2.4 15.7 17.8 26.6 32.9 4.6 Enforcement Department of Energy 37.6 24.0 0.1 1.5 14.1 19.2 33.9 26.9 4.3 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 44.0 32.9 0.1 3.0 25.3 17.9 23.1 25.6 5.0 Mine Safety and Health Administration 23.6 9.0 0.3 0.8 8.2 14.6 29.9 42.0 4.2 Nuclear Regulatory Commission 39.2 31.4 0.1 1.4 17.9 16.2 31.6 26.2 6.5 Occupational Safety and Health Administration 43.8 30.8 0.3 1.8 12.1 21.1 31.4 29.9 3.4 Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 46.2 25.2 1.0 6.4 11.8 12.3 23.9 38.9 5.8 Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 32.4 33.1 0.2 0.9 14.6 20.3 31.3 27.9 4.7 U.S. Geological Survey 37.9 12.3 0.6 5.8 16.5 20.0 28.2% 25.4% 3.5% NOTES: Employment is as of the fiscal year-end 2011 (September 30). Minority is defined as those who self-identify as Hispanic/Latino, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian, Black/African American, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, or Of More Than One Race. Source: FedScope. Additional tabulations by the National Research Council. Prepublication Version

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296 APPENDIX B Within the Federal Government, occupations are generally allocated into two categories: (1) white collar occupations and (2) trade, craft, or labor occupations. Within the former category there are more than 20 high-level occupational groups (e.g., engineering and architecture) and more than 400 occupations fall within these groups (e.g., electrical engineer, petroleum engineering). Within the trade, craft, or labor category, there are more than 30 high- level job families (e.g., electrical installation and maintenance) and close to 300 occupations fall within these families (e.g., electrician, electrical equipment repairer).41 Table C.31 in Appendix C shows the distribution of 2011 employment across occupational groups and job families at the federal agencies under consideration in this appendix. The white collar occupational groups are represented by 00xx-Miscellanous Occupations through 22xx-Information Technology; the trade, craft, or labor job families are represented by 25xx-Wire Communication Equipment Installation and Maintenance through 88xx-Aircraft Overhaul. Groups or families with 5 percent or more of total agency employment are highlighted. Occupations within these workforces are predominantly white collar. All of the agencies have a sizable administrative staff, particularly the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement where the General Admin, Clerical, and Office Svcs occupational group represents close to 40 percent of the workforce. The workforces in these agencies are generally concentrated in a small number of occupational groups. For example, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has 18 occupational groups and job families with .10 percent or more of total agency employment; however, more than 75 percent of total agency employment is concentrated in 3 occupational groups—Engineering and Architecture (45.2 percent); General Admin, Clerical, & Office Svcs (22.5 percent); and Physical Sciences (10.8 percent). Only two agencies have more than 50 percent of their workforce in a single occupational group: the Mine Safety and Health Administration has 68.8 percent of its workforce in the Investigation group and the U.S. Geological Survey has 50.7 percent of its workforce in the Physical Sciences group. Tables C.32- C.42 in Appendix C provide employment counts for the 20 largest occupations within each key agency responsible for the management and oversight of energy and mining. KEY FINDINGS B.1 The demographics of the energy and mining workforce do not mimic the overall U.S. workforce: the energy and mining workforce is predominantly male and has relatively little minority representation. Moreover, the U.S. labor force is expected to become more diverse by 2020. The energy and mining workforce is also older than the overall U.S. workforce: a majority of the energy and mining industries have more workers age 45 and older than workers under the age of 45. Taken together, these findings suggest that the energy and mining industries with workforces that are less diverse and older—such as mining—may experience greater difficulties replacing lost talent. B.2 Key energy and mining occupations expected to experience the greatest increases in talent demand over the period 2010 to 2020 are boilermakers; geoscientists, except hydrologists and geographers; electrical power-line installers and repairers; and geological and petroleum technicians. 41 For additional detail on occupational groups and job families see the Handbook of Occupational Groups and Families, May 2009, Office of Personnel Management (http://www.opm.gov/fedclass/gshbkocc.pdf). Prepublication Version

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APPENDIX B 297 B.3 In the near term, key energy and mining occupations requiring postsecondary education that may experience the greatest difficulties acquiring talent with the requisite education are: geological and petroleum technicians; occupational health and safety specialists; nuclear technicians; petroleum engineers; nuclear engineers; and health and safety engineers, except mining safety engineers and inspectors. If annual growth rates of degrees and certificates conferred continue as they have over the past 5 years, these difficulties may continue in the longer-term for occupational health and safety specialists; geological and petroleum technicians; and health and safety engineers, except mining safety engineers and inspectors. B.4 The primary shortcoming of using data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics to examine the energy and mining workforce is limitations associated with the NAICS system, the industrial classification system used by the BLS and other federal statistical agencies. These limitations reflect the speed with which the classification system changes to reflect changes in the industrial makeup of the U.S. economy and the way in which industrial classification codes are assigned to an establishment. These limitations likely result in an undercounting of energy and mining employment. B.5 The workforces in key federal agencies responsible for the management and oversight of energy and mining are more demographically diverse than the workforces in the energy and mining industries they oversee, but are generally less demographically diverse than the overall U.S. workforce. Moreover, in each of these agencies, a majority of the workforce is 45 years old and older. The Mine Safety and Health Administration workforce is the least demographically diverse and the oldest, suggesting it runs a greater risk of losing talent due to retirement. RECOMMENDATIONS TO MEET FUTURE LABOR REQUIREMENTS The following recommendations should be initiated as soon as possible. They are ordered and labeled in terms of when they would be expected to be operational. The recommended actions are expected to continue for the long term. Medium term is defined as 2-5 years, and long term as more than 5 years. B.1 The government and industry (through its national industry associations) should consider working together to find ways to attract younger workers, women, and minorities into energy and mining occupations and into the federal agencies responsible for the management and oversight of energy and mining. It would be beneficial to focus efforts on addressing potential talent gaps in the energy and mining occupations where talent demand is expected to be greatest. (Medium Term) B.2 The Department of Education, in collaboration with the Department of Labor and national industry organizations, should consider working together to identify and implement strategies to increase the pipeline of workers with the postsecondary education necessary to work in the energy and mining industries, and particularly in occupations for which the supply of workers with the requisite education is anticipated to fall short of demand. (Medium Term) B.3 The Department of Labor, through its Bureau of Labor Statistics, should determine and pursue a more effective way to partner with industry, through its national industry Prepublication Version

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298 APPENDIX B associations, to collect on a periodic basis key energy and mining workforce information that would facilitate the ongoing assessment of the demand for and supply of talent across the energy and mining industries. (Long Term) Prepublication Version