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Materials and Manufacturing Capabilities for Sustaining Defense Systems SUMMARY OF A WORKSHOP Robert J. Katt, Rapporteur Defense Materials Manufacturing and Infrastructure Standing Committee Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This study was supported by Contract No. W91lNF-l0-C-0098 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Defense. Any views expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-26757-1 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-26757-9 Cover: Image of a three-dimensional fractal. Although highly complex it shows self similarity at every length scale, mimicking the capabilities needed to sustain today’s intricate defense systems. The two glowing focal points represent the materials and manufacturing required to reach those capabilities. By looking closely at the image it is possible to see the pattern of the two focal points repeated in the structure at many length scales, both large and small, just as materials and manufacturing have to reach every level of the system to create the capabilities needed to sustain our defense systems. Artist: Erik Svedberg, image generated mathematically on a dual core cpu. This report is available in limited quantities from: National Materials and Manufacturing Board 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.nationalacademies.edu/nmmb Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2013 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to as- sociate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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WORKSHOP PLANNING GROUP ROBERT H. LATIFF, Chair, U.S. Air Force (ret.) and R. Latiff Associates W. DALE COMPTON, Purdue University ALAN C. ECKBRETH, Eckbreth Consulting JESUS M. DE LA GARZA, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University ROSARIO A. GERHARDT, Georgia Institute of Technology GEORGE T. GRAY III, Los Alamos National Laboratory THOM J. HODGSON (NAE), North Carolina State University MICHAEL F. McGRATH, Analytic Services, Inc. STEPHEN M. POLLOCK (NAE), University of Michigan ROBERT E. SCHAFRIK (NAE), GE Aviation DENISE F. SWINK, Private consultant STEVEN G. WAX, Private consultant1 1 esigned R October 8, 2012. v
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DEFENSE MATERIALS MANUFACTURING AND INFRASTRUCTURE STANDING COMMITTEE ROBERT H. LATIFF, Chair, U.S. Air Force (ret.) and R. Latiff Associates ROBERT E. SCHAFRIK (NAE), Vice-Chair, GE Aviation VALERIE BROWNING, ValTech Solutions, LLC JESUS M. DE LA GARZA, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University GEORGE T. GRAY III, Los Alamos National Laboratory MICHAEL F. McGRATH, Analytic Services, Inc. E. SARAH SLAUGHTER, Built Environment Coalition DENISE F. SWINK, Private consultant A. GALIP ULSOY (NAE), University of Michigan HAYDN N.G. WADLEY, University of Virginia STEVEN G. WAX, Private consultant Workshop Staff DENNIS I. CHAMOT, Acting Director ERIK B. SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer ROBERT J. KATT, Rapporteur/technical writer RICKY D. WASHINGTON, Administrative Coordinator (until August 2012) TERI G. THOROWGOOD, Administrative Coordinator (effective August 2012) HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate ANN F. LARROW, Program Associate (effective August 2012) vi
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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Thom J. Hodgson (NAE), North Carolina State University, David W. Johnson, Jr. (NAE), Stevens Institute, Gerald Mahan (NAS), Pennsylvania State University, and Galip Ulsoy (NAE), University of Michigan. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive com- ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the views presented at the workshop, nor did they see the final draft of the workshop summary before its release. The review of this workshop summary was overseen by Lyle Schwartz, University of Maryland. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this workshop summary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this summary rests entirely with the author and the institution. vii
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Contents OVERVIEW 1 Unresolved Large Issues, 2 Theme 1 Parts Obsolescence: Dealing with Diminishing Manufacturing Sources for Parts and Components, 5 Theme 2 Counterfeit Parts and Nonconforming Materials: Issues and Potential Solutions, 6 Theme 3 Strategies to Deal with Materials Shortages, 8 Theme 4 Easing the Transition from System Acquisition to System Sustainment, 10 Theme 5 Enabling the Cradle-to-Grave Digital Thread for Materials, Parts, and Components of Systems, 11 Theme 6 Transitioning to Condition-Based Maintenance, 12 Theme 7 Government–Industry Information Sharing and Partnering to Sustain Defense Systems, 13 Theme 8 Research Topics for Sustainment Science and Technology, 14 Theme 9 Policy Obstacles to and Enablers for Meeting System Sustainment Challenges, 14 WORKSHOP PRESENTATIONS AND DISCUSSIONS 16 Welcome: What Is DMMI? and Meeting Objectives, 16 DOD and Materials Issues, 17 The Air Force Research Laboratory and Materials Issues, 18 The Army and Materials Issues, 24 ix
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x Contents Open Discussion: Materials Issues and Programs to Mitigate Shortages, 27 Materials Shortages and Strategies to Counter Them, 31 Sustaining Air Force Aging Aircraft into the Twenty-first Century, 34 The Air Force Diminishing Manufacturing Sources and Materials Shortages Program Office, 37 Open Discussion: Problems Related to the Supply Chain, Parts Obsolescence, Certification, and Sustainment, 40 Senate Armed Services Committee Report on Counterfeit Electronic Parts in the DOD Supply Chain, 43 Counterfeit Parts and Parts Obsolescence, 45 DARPA’s TRUST and IRIS Programs, 50 Open Discussion Related to Counterfeit Problems, Substandard Parts, and Substandard Materials, 54 Current Issues at the Defense Microelectronics Activity, 55 Issues at the Office of Compliance of the Center for Devices and Radiological Health, 58 Open Discussion, 61 References, 61 APPENDIXES A Statement of Task 65 B Workshop Participants 66 C Workshop Agenda 70 D Acronyms 73