and laboratory technologies. Dual-use research and the question of how or whether to regulate it raises difficult questions about scientific freedom, communication of scientific knowledge, and access to that knowledge. Proposals to limit access to scientific research forcefully encounter deeply held values in scientific communities around norms of openness, access, and transparency. As scientific knowledge and technologies move forward and as fears have grown that these technologies could be used for harm, society must continually assess both the benefits of research of concern and how best to regulate it. Regulatory precedents for governing such research were established in a fundamentally different era, an era when sensitive information was available to a small, select group, the primary areas of the research were physical and chemical (rather than biological), and the principal aggressors were nation states. The flurry of activity in the winter and spring of 2011/2012 ignited an important debate about research undertaken in a very different world; a world where extraordinary advances in the biological sciences and biotechnology are common, a wired, technically sophisticated world, and a world where scientifically savvy individuals work to protect public health and safety and, in some cases, to cause harm.



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