Appendix A

Timeline

1918 Outbreak of “Spanish” flu (H1N1)
   
1957 Outbreak of “Asian” flu (H2N2)
   
1968 Outbreak of “Hong Kong” flu (H3N2)
   
1971 Seattle Crown Gall Group begins exploring bacterium-to-plant transmissible plasmid.
   
1972 Draft of Biological Weapons Convention text
   
1973 Recombinant DNA methodologies in place
   
1974 Moratorium on recombinant DNA
   
1975 Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA
   
1975 Biological Weapons Convention established
   
1976 National Institutes of Health (NIH) issues initial guidelines for research involving recombinant DNA.
   
1980 In Diamond v. Chakrabarty, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that “a live, human-made micro-organism is patentable subject matter.”
   


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Appendix A Timeline 1918 Outbreak of “Spanish” flu (H1N1) 1957 Outbreak of “Asian” flu (H2N2) 1968 Outbreak of “Hong Kong” flu (H3N2) 1971 Seattle Crown Gall Group begins exploring bacterium-to- plant transmissible plasmid. 1972 Draft of Biological Weapons Convention text 1973 Recombinant DNA methodologies in place 1974 Moratorium on recombinant DNA 1975 Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA 1975 Biological Weapons Convention established 1976 National Institutes of Health (NIH) issues initial guidelines for research involving recombinant DNA. 1980 In Diamond v. Chakrabarty, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that “a live, human-made micro-organism is patentable subject matter.” 51

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52 PERSPECTIVES ON RESEARCH WITH H5N1 AVIAN INFLUENZA 1981 Ability to reverse engineer a plus/positive-strand RNA vi- rus (poliovirus) 1982 Publication of National Research Council (NRC) report Scientific Communication and National Security (aka the Corson Report) 1985 National Security Decision Directive-189 (NSDD-189) released 1990 Ability to reverse engineer a negative strand RNA animal virus 2004 Publication of NRC report Biotechnology Research in an Age of Terrorism (aka the Fink Report) 2005 First meeting of the National Science Advisory Board on Biosecurity (NSABB) 2006 Publication of NRC report Globalization, Biosecurity, and the Future of the Life Sciences 2006-2007 Ability to reverse engineer double-stranded RNA viruses 2007 Publication of NSABB’s “Proposed Framework for the Oversight of Dual Use Life Sciences Research: Strategies for Minimizing the Potential Misuse of Research” Publication of NRC report Science and Security in a Post- 9/11 World 2009 Outbreak of “swine” flu (H1N1) 2011 Publication of NSABB’s “Recommendations on Commu- nications of Experimental Adaptation of Avian Influenza A/H5N1” Publication of World Health Organization’s (WHO) “Pan- demic Influenza Preparedness Framework” 7th Review Conference, Biological Weapons Convention

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APPENDIX A 53 December 20 Publication of National Institutes of Health’s (NIH) “Press Statement on the NSABB Review of H5N1 Research” (see Appendix B) 2012 January 20 Publication of “NIH Statement on H5N1” (see Appendix B) January 31 Publication of NSABB statement “Adaptations of Avian Flu Virus Are a Cause For Concern” (see Appendix B) February Publication of WHO’s “Report on Technical Consultation on H5N1 Research Issues” (see Appendix B) March 29 Publication of “United States Government Policy for Over- sight of Life Sciences Dual Use Research of Concern” (see Appendix B) March 30 Publication of NSABB “Findings and Recommendations” (see Appendix B) April 14 Publication of NIH’s “Statement on NSABB’s March 30, 2012 Recommendations to NIH on H5N1 Research” (see Appendix B) April 20 Publication of NIH’s “Statement by NIH Director Francis Collins, M.D., Ph.D., on the NSABB Review of Revised H5N1 Manuscripts” (See Appendix B) May 2 Publication of the Kawaoka paper (see Appendix C) June 22 Publication of the Fouchier paper (see Appendix C)

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