and evaluation of HIV prevention should include need, coverage of need, quality of services provided, and behavioral and epidemiological outcomes. OGAC should provide clearly defined process and outcome measures as well as impact assessment methods to evaluate progress.

o   PEPFAR’s prevention strategy should include balanced support for innovation, research, and evaluation to contribute to the evolving evidence base and advance understanding of the effectiveness of interventions within all prevention modalities. To define and ensure this balance, OGAC should, through its existing mechanisms, convene and use expertise spanning behavioral, structural, and biomedical prevention intervention approaches. PEPFAR-supported research and evaluation activities should employ appropriate methodologies and study designs, without unduly emphasizing random assignment designs. PEPFAR should support innovations in prevention science methodologies where needed to achieve its programmatic research aims (see also Recommendation 11-1).

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