may also provide food) (OGAC, 2009g, 2010b). Interviewees in partner countries indicated that this area of intervention is important. One interviewee described a need for more ‘social interventions’ for people with HIV in order to assist them to become more employable and productive, “like any other person(331-8-PCNGO). Another described the ideal as supporting PLHIV so that they will be able to return to the jobs they held or businesses they had prior to becoming ill (331-32-PCNGO). Yet another described the positive outcomes of participation by PLHIV in income-generating activities, including providing them with a source of productive work, an opportunity for skills building, a means of contributing to the community, improved self-esteem and morale, and presumed improved treatment adherence. According to this organization, ‘they don’t just let patients sit and say I’m sick. [. . .] It is not only about giving them ARVs(272-32/35-PCNGO). One partner organization discussed the link between income-generating activities and reducing risk, as exemplified by the predicament of sex workers who could find no other means of employment (331-08-PCNGO).

A number of partner organizations across countries, including many local community-based organizations, described providing PLHIV with small grants to start businesses or providing or linking PLHIV with support for income-generating activities (IGAs) such as farming; raising animals; or making products to sell, such as beads, candles, or soap (240-14-USPS; 240-26-PCNGO; 240-29-USNGO; 331-20-USNGO; 272-32/35-PCNGO; 240-25-PCGOV; 331-8-PCNGO). As described by an interviewee in one partner country,

The most important success in our PEPFAR-funded project is that all our beneficiaries are linked to local support and some have been successful in their income-generating activity. [. . .] This program has been very successful due to close monitoring; we have conducted certain case studies in some of our projects and most of the IGA beneficiaries have been successful.’ (240-26-PCGOV)

Although interviewees generally endorsed IGAs, some did report doubts about the value and viability of IGAs for PLHIV (272-32/35-PCNGO; 240-24-USG).

A number of interviewees across countries described success with PEPFAR support for vocational training and employment opportunity programs (396-31-PCGOV; 396-44-PCGOV; 461-7-PCNGO; 331-19-USNGO; 587-13-USG; 587-21-PCNGO; 272-26-PCNGO; 196-9-USNGO; 196-23-PCNGO; 166-27-PCNGO; 935-16-USNGO). However, interviews also described challenges in this area. Resources associated with vocational training posed challenges as did being able to transition into adequate employment, and, despite isolated program successes, vocational training remained a largely unmet need for PLHIV (396-31-PCGOV: 396-36-PCGOV; 396-45-USNGO;

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