Public Health Evaluations Phase 2 (2009–2010) Answer questions of global significance, program impact and effectiveness, comparative evaluations of interventions and programs, and operational questions Rigorous, scientifically sound research methodology using experimental or quasi-experimental designs, including (but not limited to) randomization, modeling, advanced statistical techniques, and comparison groups Funded centrally Scientific Steering Committee, PHE Subcommittee, and PHE Evaluation Teams
Increased central support and coordination
Country driven
Align with globally significant priorities
Implementation Science (2011–present) Focused on improving uptake, implementation, and translation of research findings into practice Scientifically rigorous research methods using randomized experimental designs, quasi-experimental methods, or advanced mathematical techniques (e.g., simulation, mathematical optimization, and decision science) Funded centrallya
Concept proposals required through implementing agencies
Implementation Science Steering Committee (formerly known as PHE Subcommittee)
Central oversight
Implementing agency managed
Scientific Advisory Boardb driven
Align with country research needs and priorities

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