trade, which have a shared objective of reducing the impact of HIV/AIDS on nations, communities, families, and individuals. USAID also supports the New Partners Initiative (NPI) for building the capacity of community-level organizations and contributing to the long-term local ownership of HIV/AIDS responses. In addition, USAID supports a number of international partnerships (such as the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative and UNAIDS). Finally, USAID supports the targeted research, development, and dissemination of new technologies as well as packaging and distribution mechanisms for antiretrovirals (ARVs) through the Supply Chain Management System (PEPFAR, 2012).

•   The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) implements PEPFAR prevention, treatment, and care programs in developing countries and conducts or supports HIV/AIDS research. HHS contributes to the implementation of PEPFAR through several agencies, coordinated by the Office of Global Affairs (PEPFAR, 2012).

o   The Division of Global HIV/AIDS (DGHA) at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides technical assistance to 75 countries through its country and regional offices, with approximately 380 staff members at headquarters and 1,300 overseas (more than 1,000 of them locally employed nationals), including physicians, epidemiologists, public health advisors, behavioral scientists, and laboratory scientists. These staff members provide technical assistance and direct support to strengthen and build sustainable laboratory, epidemiology, surveillance, and health information systems; expand high-quality HIV service delivery and transition these services to local ownership; implement evidence-based HIV prevention programs; and conduct research on program impact and cost-effectiveness. DGHA is also able to coordinate with other HHS global health programs, such as global disease detection, public health training, and prevention and control of other infectious diseases, as well as with domestic HIV/AIDS prevention programs in the United States (PEPFAR, 2012).

o   The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the lead federal agency for biomedical research on AIDS. Through an international research and training portfolio that includes work in more than 90 countries, NIH supports basic science research as well as clinical and behavioral research into HIV and its associated opportunistic infections, co-infections, and malignancies (PEPFAR, 2012).

o   The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Global HIV/AIDS Program implements the rapid rollout of

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