ARVs and other clinical services, training and technical assistance, and nursing leadership development. HRSA supports education and training in more than 25 countries for thousands of health care workers and provides HIV quality-improvement models and software in order to improve the quality of care in PEPFAR countries (PEPFAR, 2012).

o   The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ensures the availability of effective and safe ARVs. To increase the options for low-cost, high-quality HIV/AIDS therapies available for purchase under PEPFAR, FDA has used focused engagement with companies and priority assessments to approve single-entity, fixed-dose combination, and co-packaged versions of previously approved ARVs, most of which are still protected in the United States by patent and/or exclusivity (PEPFAR, 2012).

o   The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) applies technical expertise and program experience in substance abuse and dependence prevention, treatment, and recovery to PEPFAR’s programs, with an emphasis on the use of medication-assisted treatment as an HIV prevention intervention (PEPFAR, 2012).

•   The Department of Defense (DoD) supports HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and care; strategic information; infrastructure development and support; human capacity development; and program and policy development in host militaries and civilian communities of 73 countries around the world. These activities are implemented through direct military-to-military assistance, support to nongovernmental organizations and universities, and collaboration with other USG agencies. The executive agent for global HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and treatment for foreign militaries is the DoD HIV/AIDS Prevention Program (DHAPP), based at the Naval Health Research Center (NHRC) in San Diego, California. DHAPP administers funding, conducts training, provides technical assistance, and oversees the contributions to PEPFAR of a variety of DoD organizations (PEPFAR, 2012).

•   The Peace Corps uses PEPFAR resources to extend its contribution to HIV-related work in countries with Peace Corps posts throughout the world, using volunteers who have language and cultural training and who live in the communities where they work. PEPFAR supports the Peace Corps to enhance HIV/AIDS programming and in-country training; field additional Peace Corps volunteers specifically in support of PEPFAR goals; and provide targeted support for community-initiated projects. The Peace Corps provides long-term capacity development support, including management and pro-



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