Appendix D

Committee, Consultant, and Staff Biographies

COMMITTEE MEMBERS

Dr. Robert E. Black (Chair) is the chair of the Department of International Health and the Edgar Berman Professor in International Health, as well as the director of the Institute for International Programs at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Dr. Black is trained in medicine, infectious diseases, and epidemiology. He has served as a medical epidemiologist at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and worked at institutions in Bangladesh and Peru on research related to childhood infectious diseases and nutritional problems. Dr. Black’s current research includes field trials of vaccines, micronutrients, and other nutritional interventions; effectiveness studies of health programs; and the evaluation of preventive and curative health service programs in low- and middle-income countries. His other interests are related to the use of evidence in policy and programs, including estimates of the burden of disease, and the development of research capacity. As a member of the Institute of Medicine and advisory bodies of the World Health Organization, the International Vaccine Institute, and other international organizations, he assists with the development of policies intended to improve children’s health. He chairs the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group and the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative. He currently has projects in Bangladesh, Ghana, India, Malawi, Mali, Peru, Tanzania, and Zanzibar. He has more than 500 scientific journal publications and is co-editor of the textbook Global Health. Dr. Black



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Appendix D Committee, Consultant, and Staff Biographies COMMITTEE MEMBERS Dr. Robert E. Black (Chair) is the chair of the Department of International Health and the Edgar Berman Professor in International Health, as well as the director of the Institute for International Programs at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Dr. Black is trained in medicine, infec- tious diseases, and epidemiology. He has served as a medical epidemiologist at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and worked at insti- tutions in Bangladesh and Peru on research related to childhood infectious diseases and nutritional problems. Dr. Black’s current research includes field trials of vaccines, micronutrients, and other nutritional interventions; effec- tiveness studies of health programs; and the evaluation of preventive and curative health service programs in low- and middle-income countries. His other interests are related to the use of evidence in policy and programs, in- cluding estimates of the burden of disease, and the development of research capacity. As a member of the Institute of Medicine and advisory bodies of the World Health Organization, the International Vaccine Institute, and other international organizations, he assists with the development of poli- cies intended to improve children’s health. He chairs the Child Health Epi- demiology Reference Group and the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative. He currently has projects in Bangladesh, Ghana, India, Malawi, Mali, Peru, Tanzania, and Zanzibar. He has more than 500 scientific jour- nal publications and is co-editor of the textbook Global Health. Dr. Black 793

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794 EVALUATION OF PEPFAR has served on four committees and the Board on International Health (now Global Health) of the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Judith Auerbach is a sociologist and independent science and policy con- sultant who most recently served as vice president of Research and Evalua- tion at the San Francisco AIDS Foundation. Her previous positions include vice president of Public Policy and Program Development at amfAR, (The Foundation for AIDS Research); the director of the Behavioral and Social Science Program and the HIV prevention science coordinator in the Office of AIDS Research at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH); assistant director for Social and Behavioral Sciences in the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy; and senior program officer at the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Auerbach received her Ph.D. in sociology from the Uni- versity of California, Berkeley, and has taught, presented, and published in the areas of HIV/AIDS, social science and public policy, and sex and gender, with articles appearing in such journals as Global Public Health, American Journal of Public Health, Science, Health Affairs, and the Journal of Health and Social Behavior. She serves on a number of commissions and advisory and editorial boards, including for the International AIDS Society Govern- ing Council, the Global HIV Prevention Working Group, the NIH Office of AIDS Research Advisory Council, and the Journal of the International AIDS Society. Dr. Auerbach has received a number of awards, including the 2004 Feminist Activist Award from Sociologists for Women in Society, the 2006 Research in Action Award from the Treatment Action Group, the 2008 Career Award from the Sociologists AIDS Network, and the 2010 Thomas M. Kelly Leadership Award from Project Inform. Dr. Mary T. Bassett joined the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation in 2009 as director for its African Health Initiative, an effort that focuses on strengthening health systems in projects under way in Ghana, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia. In late 2011, she additionally assumed leadership for the Child Abuse Prevention Program, which for 10 years has made grants aimed at preventing child maltreatment. Previously, she was a deputy commissioner at the New York City Health Department, where she oversaw programs that addressed noncommunicable disease and maternal and child health, as well as district public health offices based in Harlem, Central Brooklyn, and the Bronx. Between 1985 and 2002, she lived in Harare, Zimbabwe, where she was a member of the medical faculty at the University of Zimbabwe. She has also served for many years as an associate editor of the American Journal of Public Health. Dr. Ronald Brookmeyer is a professor of biostatistics at the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Public Health. Dr. Brookmeyer’s re-

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APPENDIX D 795 search is at the interface of biostatistics and public health. A main theme of Dr. Brookmeyer’s work is the use of statistical and quantitative approaches to measure the health of populations. Dr. Brookmeyer develops statistical methods and models for tracking and forecasting health and disease. He has worked extensively on the development of methods for tracking the course of the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. Dr. Brookmeyer developed the back-calculation method for disease forecasting and developed statistical approaches for biomarker-based methods for ascertaining HIV incidence rates in populations. He has also worked on issues of biosecurity, including the development of epidemic models. His research interests in biostatistics include survival analysis, clinical trial design and analyses, and epidemio- logical and statistical methods for disease surveillance. Dr. Brookmeyer has served as chair of the Statistics in Epidemiology Section of the American Statistical Association (ASA) and of the Statistics Section of American As- sociation for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). He is a fellow of both the ASA and the AAAS. A member of the Institute of Medicine, he has served on six prior National Academies committees. Dr. Lola Dare is the chief executive officer of the Center for Health Sciences Training, Research and Development (CHESTRAD) International and a community physician and epidemiologist. Dr. Dare has been a member of the West African Postgraduate Medical College in the Faculty of Pub- lic Health since 1990 and a fellow of the Nigerian National Postgradu- ate Medical College in the Faculty of Community Medicine since 1992. Dr. Dare also holds a certificate in Advance Management from the Euro- pean Business School in France (2006) and is a member of the U.K. Faculty of Public Health by distinction. Dr. Dare has been engaged in advocacy for people-centered reform and development in Nigeria and was a member of the World Bank Expert Panel for Better Health in Africa (BHA). In 1998, the BHA panel metamorphosed into the African Council for Sustainable Health Development (ACOSHED), and Dr. Dare is currently a member of ACOSHED’s Interim Executive Board. Dr. Dare facilitates health leader- ship development and management programs and serves as a consultant for many regional and global organizations in public health and social development (health, education, and poverty reduction), working at local, national and regional levels to advocate for and support the increased ap- plication of management and business tools to improve the performance of African health and social development systems. She graduated with a bachelor of medicine and bachelor of surgery (M.B.B.S) degree from the College of Medicine at the University of Ibadan in June 1985; obtained an M.Sc. degree in epidemiology from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in 1991; and was awarded certificates in population and

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796 EVALUATION OF PEPFAR development and international health as a David E. Bell and Takemi Fellow of the Harvard School of Public Health in 1994 and 2000, respectively. Dr. Alex C. Ezeh is the executive director of the African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC) and the director of the Consortium for Advanced Research Training and Research in Africa (CARTA). He joined APHRC in 1998 (then a program of the Population Council in Nairobi) as a senior research fellow. In 2000, he was appointed APHRC’s interim director and charged with the responsibility of leading its transition to an autono- mous institution. Having successfully led this transition, he was appointed APHRC’s executive director in 2001 and has since steered the young in- stitution to phenomenal growth. Prior to joining APHRC, he worked at ORC/Macro International, where he provided technical assistance to gov- ernmental and nongovernmental institutions in several African countries in the design and conduct of Demographic and Health Surveys. Dr. Ezeh has more than 20 years of experience working in public health and has authored numerous scientific publications covering the issues of population, demographics, health, and health metrics. Currently, he participates on the boards and committees of several international public health organizations, including PATH, the Council of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population, the Scientific Advisory Group of Doris Duke’s Africa Health Initiative, the Consortium for National Health Research in Kenya, the Alliance for Health and Systems at the World Health Organization, the Wittgenstein Centre for Demography and Global Human Capital, and the KEMRI-Wellcome Trust International Scientific Advisory Board. Dr. Ezeh received his Ph.D. in demography from the University of Pennsylvania in 1993. He is also an honorary professor at University of Witwatersrand, South Africa. He has an M.A. in demography from the same university (1991) and an M.Sc. in sociology from the University of Ibadan, Nigeria (1988). Dr. Alex Ezeh has also been honored by the Obafemi Awolowo University in Ile Ife, Nigeria, for his outstanding contribution to the ad- vancement of academic training in Africa. Professor Sofia Gruskin directs the Program on Global Health and Hu- man Rights at the Institute for Global Health at the University of Southern California and holds appointments as a professor of preventive medicine at the Keck School of Medicine and as a professor of law and preventive medicine at the Gould School of Law. She is adjunct professor of global health at the Harvard School of Public Health, where she was previously an associate professor in the Department of Global Health and Population; the director of the Program on International Health and Human Rights; the co-director of the Interdepartmental Program on Women, Gender and Health; and the faculty chair of the Group on Reproductive Health and

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APPENDIX D 797 Rights at the Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies. Her work has been instrumental in the conceptual, methodological, policy, and practice development of linking health to human rights, with a focus on HIV/AIDS, sexual and reproductive health, child and adolescent health, gender-based violence, and health systems. She has extensive experience in research, training, and programmatic work with nongovernmental, govern- mental, and intergovernmental organizations working in the fields of health and human rights around the world. Professor Gruskin is the principal investigator for several projects sponsored by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS), the World Health Organization, and the United National Population Fund that are intended to strengthen the health and human rights research and policy agenda, particularly in the areas of HIV/AIDS, sexual and reproductive health, child and adolescent health, and gender-based violence. She serves on numerous boards and committees nationally and internationally, including as a member of the technical advisory group of the Global Commission on HIV and the Law and the UNAIDS Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group. She served as a permanent member of the Behavioral and Social Consequences of HIV/ AIDS study section at the U.S. National Institutes of Health (2005–2009) and as chair of the UNAIDS Global Reference Group on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights (2002-2006). Professor Gruskin was editor-in-chief of the international journal Health and Human Rights from 1994 to 2006 and is currently an associate editor for the American Journal of Public Health, Global Public Health, and Reproductive Health Matters. Dr. Angelina Kakooza is a neuropediatrician and lecturer in the Depart- ment of Pediatrics and Child Health at the School of Medicine, Makerere University College of Health Sciences. Her major research interests are in the fields of neurology and infectious diseases, and she has vast experience in the field of HIV/AIDS among children. The bulk of her educational training has been in Uganda; however, she has also attended several short courses in pediatrics, neurology, and public health in various countries in Africa, Asia, and Europe. She took a course on the clinical management of HIV at the Johannesburg Medical School, University of Witwatersrand in South Africa. She has worked as a sessional pediatrician in specialized HIV units in Uganda, including the Mild May International Center, Kajjansi, Uganda (a center for specialist training on HIV/AIDS and the management of HIV/AIDS patients). She also worked at the Baylor College of Medicine Children’s Foundation (formerly the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Clinic), which is a Pediatric and Adolescent HIV Center of Excellence. She is an alumna of the African International Brain Research Organization–funded schools. She was a recipient of the International Scholarship Award from the American Epilepsy Society in 2005, which she undertook at Children’s

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798 EVALUATION OF PEPFAR Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School under the supervision of Professor Frances Jensen, and she was a Mentee Awardee of the Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum Research Mentor Program. She is a co–principal investigator on a U.S. National Institutes of Health grant to study neurodevelopmental disabilities screening and assessment in Uganda, and she has a multisite study on the epidemiology of epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa. She has published work in general pediatrics, autism, and HIV/AIDS. She is a member of several professional and voluntary bod- ies and is the president of the Uganda Chapter of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and treasurer of the Commission on African Af- fairs of the ILAE. Currently, she is pursuing a Ph.D. in medicine (neurology) jointly at Makerere University in Kampala and the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, and she was a recipient of the African Doctoral Dis- sertation Research Fellowship in 2011. Dr. Jennifer Kates is vice president and director of Global Health & HIV Policy at the Kaiser Family Foundation. She oversees the Foundation’s policy analysis and research focused on the U.S. government’s (USG) role in global health and on the global and domestic HIV epidemics. Widely regarded as an expert in the field, she regularly publishes and presents on global health issues and is particularly known for her work analyzing do- nor government investments in global health; assessing and mapping the USG’s global health architecture, programs, and funding; and tracking key trends in the HIV epidemic, an area she has been working in for more than 20 years. Prior to joining the Foundation in 1998, Dr. Kates was a senior associate with The Lewin Group, a health care consulting firm, where she focused on HIV policy, strategic planning/health systems analysis, and health care for vulnerable populations. Prior to that, she directed the Office of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Concerns at Princeton University. Dr. Kates received her Ph.D. in health policy from The George Washington University, where she is also a lecturer. She holds a bachelor’s degree from Dartmouth College, a master’s degree in public affairs from Princeton University’s Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, and a master’s degree in political science from the University of Massachusetts. Dr. Ann Kurth is a professor and founding director of the Global Division, New York University College of Nursing. She maintains affiliate appoint- ments in the University of Washington Department of Global Health and its School of Nursing. As a clinically trained epidemiologist, Dr. Kurth’s work focuses on HIV/sexually transmitted infections/reproductive health preven- tion, screening, and care, as well as on global health workforce issues. Her research has been funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases [NIAID], National

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APPENDIX D 799 Institute on Drug Abuse [NIDA], National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [NICHD]), Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration, and others, for studies conducted in the United States and internationally. She is currently involved in projects in the United States, Uganda, Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, India, the Republic of Georgia, and Peru. Dr. Kurth has published more than 100 peer-reviewed articles, book chapters, and schol- arly monographs and edited one of the first books published on women and HIV (Until the Cure, Yale Press, 1993). She served as president of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, which has international affiliates in Canada and Europe and which created credentialing certifications for HIV nurses. Dr. Kurth received a Ph.D. in epidemiology from the University of Washington; an M.S.N., R.N., and C.N.M. in nurse-midwifery from Yale University; and a M.P.H. in population and family health from Columbia University. Her undergraduate work was done at Princeton University (A.B., magna cum laude). Dr. Kurth is a fellow of both the American Acad- emy of Nursing and the New York Academy of Medicine. Dr. Anne C. Petersen is the founder and president of Global Philanthropy Alliance, a foundation making grants in Africa. She also is a research pro- fessor at the Center for Human Growth and Development at the University of Michigan among other affiliations there. She serves on several voluntary boards and committees for governments, foundations, and scientific or community-based organizations. For example, she is co-chair of the advi- sory board for CALIT2, an institute created a decade ago to move infor- mation technology advances in health and other areas from the University of California system to industry in California and beyond. She also chairs the jury for the million–Swiss Franc research prize given by the Jacobs Foundation. Prior to returning to Michigan, Dr. Petersen was a professor of psychology at Stanford University and the deputy director for the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, where she instituted new practices for fellow selection and fundraising. For a decade, Dr. Petersen was the senior vice president for programs and a corporate officer at the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, among the largest in United States. She was responsible for all Kellogg programs in the United States, Latin America, and Africa. Among her accomplishments there, she established a learning system that would permit the Foundation to capture and track lessons learned from program work. The U.S. president nominated and the Senate confirmed Dr. Petersen as the deputy director and chief operating officer of National Science Foundation (NSF), with responsibilities for all science and engineering research and education programs. She was the first woman to

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800 EVALUATION OF PEPFAR hold either of the top two positions at NSF. Dr. Petersen was the first vice president for research at the University of Minnesota, as well as the gradu- ate dean and a professor at the Institute for Child Development and the De- partment of Pediatrics. At Penn State University for a decade, Dr. Petersen was the department head and founding dean of the College of Health and Human Development, and professor of health and human development. Prior to Penn State, Dr. Petersen was a faculty member at the University of Chicago and the associate director of the MacArthur Foundation Health Program. Dr. Petersen has authored 12 books and more than 230 articles on adolescent and gender issues, including health and development, cognition, evaluation and research methods, and higher education. Her honors include election to the Institute of Medicine and being named a fellow in several scientific societies including the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Psychological Association (three divisions), and the Association for Psychological Science, where she was a founding fellow. She co-founded the Society of Research on Adolescence, was the president of several scientific societies, and is the past president of the International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development. Dr. Petersen earned all her degrees at the University of Chicago: a B.A. in mathematics, an M.S. in statistics, and a Ph.D. in measurement, evaluation, and statistical analysis. Dr. Douglas D. Richman is a distinguished professor of pathology and medicine at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) and the Flor- ence Seeley Riford Chair in AIDS Research. He is the director of the Center for AIDS Research at UCSD and a staff physician at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) San Diego Healthcare System. He trained as an in- fectious disease physician and medical virologist at Stanford, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and Harvard before joining the faculty at UCSD in 1976. He has focused his investigation on HIV disease and pathogenesis for the past 30 years. His laboratory was the first to identify HIV drug resistance. His laboratory joined two others in identifying latently infected CD4 cells as the obstacle to eradication of HIV with potent antiretroviral therapy. More recently, his lab described the dynamics of the neutralizing antibody response to HIV and the rapidity of viral escape and evolution in response to this selective pressure. Dr. Richman has authored more than 625 scientific publications. He is also a co-editor of Clinical Virology, a state-of-the-art reference book, and editor of Antiviral Drug Resistance. Dr. Richman has served as a consultant to the NIH, the VA, the World Health Organization, and the State of California and has been honored with an NIH Merit Award and the Howard M. Temin Award for Clinical Science and Clinical Excellence in the Fight Against HIV/AIDS. He served on the Institute of Medicine Committee for Examining the Probable Consequences

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APPENDIX D 801 of Alternative Patterns of Widespread Antiretroviral Drug Use in Resource- Constrained Settings. Dr. Jennifer Prah Ruger is an associate professor at Yale University at the Schools of Public Health, Medicine, and Graduate School of Arts and Sci- ences and adjunct faculty at the Law School. She is a senior research fellow at the MacMillan Center for International and Area Studies. She is a fac- ulty associate of Yale’s Interdisciplinary Center for Bioethics, its Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS, and the Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity. Following a postdoctoral fellowship at Harvard’s Center for Population and Development Studies, she served on the Health and Devel- opment Satellite Secretariat of the World Health Organization Director- General, Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland’s Transition Team. She then worked as a health economist at the World Bank and later served as a speechwriter to President James D. Wolfensohn. Dr. Ruger was a member of the Insti- tute of Medicine’s Global Health Governance Working Group, Committee on the U.S. Commitment to Global Health. She is currently a member of the Ethics Subcommittee of the Advisory Committee to the Director at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and is chair of the Ethics Special Primary Interest Group of the American Public Health Association. Her research interests focus on health ethics, economics, and politics on the political economy of health and include health financing and insurance; health, health systems, and economic development; health and social justice; global health justice; and global health governance. These contributions are unified by an overarching interest in disparities and equity in health and health care, focusing on vulnerable and impoverished populations at the national and global level. She has published both theoretical and empirical work on equity and efficiency of health system access, financing, resource allocation, policy reform and the social determinants of health. She received a B.A. in political economy from the University of California, Berkeley, an M.Sc. from Oxford University, an M.A from the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, and a Ph.D. from Harvard University. Dr. Deborah L. Rugg has more than 30 years of professional international and national evaluation experience and has led international evaluation standards-setting bodies such as the HIV/AIDS Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group, which she chaired from 2006 to 2011, and the United Nations (UN) Evaluation Group, where she has served as vice chair since 2012. Since August 2011, Dr. Rugg has served as the director of the In- spection and Evaluation Division in the Office of Inspection and Oversight Services, UN Secretariat in New York City. Previously she served as Chief of the Monitoring and Evaluation Division at the Joint UN Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS) in Geneva, Switzerland. Prior to joining UNAIDS in 2005,

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802 EVALUATION OF PEPFAR Dr. Rugg was the associate director for Monitoring and Evaluation for the Global AIDS Program of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Preven- tion (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, from 2000 to 2005. While in Atlanta, she also served as an adjunct associate professor at the Emory University School of Public Health. Prior to that, she was an assistant professor of health psychology at the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine and then at the San Diego State University School of Public Health from 1982 to 1987. She joined the CDC in 1987 as an Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) officer in the Division of HIV/STD Prevention. She has authored or coauthored more than 70 peer-reviewed publications and 30 major agency reports and normative guidances, primarily on evaluation methods in HIV, especially in relation to adolescents, risk groups, and HIV counseling and testing. She served on the National Research Council Panel on Data and Research Priorities for Arresting AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa. She earned a B.A. from the University of Wisconsin in physiological psy- chology and a Ph.D. in health psychology from the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine in 1982. Dr. Dawn K. Smith is a medical epidemiologist in the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention (DHAP) at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). As lead for the Biomedical Interventions Activity in the Epidemi- ology Branch, she coordinates planning for health services and systems research, and development of guidelines and other support tools for the do- mestic implementation of clinical interventions to reduce HIV acquisition, including non-occupational pre-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP), pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and potential topical microbicides. Dr. Smith began her career at CDC coordinating the HER Study, a multisite longitudinal study of the effects of HIV infection on women, and collaborating with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)-funded women’s HIV cohort study, the WIHS. She then led the development of CDC guidelines for the use of nPEP and led the writing of a 5-year micro- bicide research agenda for the agency. She spent 4 years as the associate director for HIV research at the CDC field station in Botswana, where she established clinical trial infrastructure with integrated sociobehavioral research and initiated PrEP trials and then served for 3 years as an associ- ate chief for science in the DHAP Epidemiology Branch. She maintains a strong research interest in the intersections of race, ethnicity, social class, injection drug use, and the HIV epidemic. Dr. Smith has served on scientific committees and review panels for NIAID, the Office of AIDS Research, and the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Dr. Smith received her M.D. from the University of Massachusetts Medical School and went on to complete an M.P.H. in public health policy and international health, and a M.S. in clinical research design and statistical analysis at the University of Michi-

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APPENDIX D 803 gan. A family physician, Dr. Smith has practiced in varied settings, provid- ing medical care in a Native American community, in an urban clinic with Hispanic, Vietnamese, and African American families, and to HIV-infected women at Grady Hospital in Atlanta. Dr. Papa Salif Sow is a professor of infectious diseases at the University of Dakar in Senegal. He received his medical degree from the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Dakar in 1987. He trained as a physician specializing in infectious and tropical diseases. Dr. Sow completed his training at the Institute of Tropical Medicine of Antwerp in Belgium in 1991 (where he obtained an M.S. degree) and at Nagasaki University in Japan in 1994. In 1990, he was recognized as a World AIDS Foundation International Scholar at the San Francisco General Hospital. Since 1987, Dr. Sow has worked extensively in the field of infectious diseases in general and HIV/AIDS in particular, focusing on the care of patients, teaching, and research. He has focused his research on the development of diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic infections and on first-line antiretroviral thera- pies and management strategies in resources-limited countries. In 2002, Dr. Sow was nominated as the head of the Department of Infectious Diseases of the University of Dakar. Since 1998, he has been the clinical coordina- tor of the Senegalese Initiative for Access to ARV and has led a multidisci- plinary team for scaling up this strategy to the entire country. He has also undertaken several consultancies on HIV/AIDS care and treatment for the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS and the World Health Organization (WHO) in Geneva. He is a member of the WHO Writing Guidelines for Access to Care and Treatment in Resource Limited Settings, a member of the Strategic Advisory Committee for HIV/AIDS, and was a member of the Technical Review Panel of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria during Rounds 4, 5, 6, and 7. He has many re- search collaborations, mainly with the Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida et les Hépatites Virales in France and the University of Washington, Seattle, focusing on opportunistic infections and HIV therapies. His current research interests include second-line antiretroviral therapies in resources- limited countries and HPV vaccine trials in young girls. Dr. Sow is the president of the African Network for AIDS Physicians and the coordinator of the Regional Centre for Research and Training at Fann Hospital Dakar, Senegal. Since 2008, he has been a member of the Governing Council of the International AIDS Society for Africa. Dr. Sally K. Stansfield is a physician epidemiologist who works as a health systems technology advisor, focusing on metrics and the development of institutions and policies to deliver better health outcomes. She works with multiple stakeholders, including United Nations member states, technical

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804 EVALUATION OF PEPFAR agencies, donors, and civil society groups that are committed to strengthen- ing country-owned strategies and systems for health. An expert in evalua- tion and planning for health systems, Dr. Stansfield has worked extensively in Africa, Asia, Central America, South America, and the Middle East. She was the founding director of the Health Metrics Network initiative, an innovative partnership hosted by the World Health Organization (WHO) to strengthen health information systems. For 7 years prior to working at WHO, she worked within the newly established Global Health Program for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. There, she was instrumental in shaping strategies and in creating and managing several landmark alliances including the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization; the Global Fund to Fight Tuberculosis, AIDS and Malaria; and the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition. She has worked in senior positions for Management Sciences for Health in Cambodia, the International Development Research Centre in Ottawa, the U.S. Agency for International Development, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Dr. Stansfield has also served in research and teaching roles on the faculties of Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia, McGill University in Montreal, Johns Hopkins Uni- versity in Baltimore, the University of Washington in Seattle, and the Uni- formed Services University of the Health Sciences in Bethesda, Maryland. Dr. Stansfield’s awards include the Alpha Omega Alpha medical honorary, the International College of Surgeons Award, the U.S. Public Health Service Distinguished Service Commendation, a Fulbright Fellowship, and the Yale Tercentennial Medal. Dr. Taha E. Taha is a professor and the co-director of the Infectious Disease Program, Department of Epidemiology, at the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health. Dr. Taha is also a professor of popu- lation, family and reproductive health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Dr. Taha is a physician with diverse training and extensive experience in infectious diseases, community medicine, public health, and demography. Dr. Taha is the principal investigator (PI) for the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded (2006–2013) Malawi HIV Clinical Trials Unit, a consortium of three institutions including Johns Hopkins University, the Malawi College of Medicine, and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Previously, Dr. Taha was the PI of two NIH-funded projects in Malawi—the HIV Prevention Trials Network and the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN). He is also a PI, co-PI, or a co- investigator on multiple other cooperative agreements, subcontracts, and investigator-initiated research and training projects in Malawi funded by NIH, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and other agen- cies. For more than 15 years, Dr. Taha has directed several large cohort studies and clinical trials in Malawi. His expertise is in conduct of HIV

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APPENDIX D 805 epidemiologic studies in sexually transmitted infections, malaria, and other tropical diseases. He has published extensively in the fields of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases and has participated in teaching of gradu- ate medical and public health students and postdoctoral fellows in several countries in Africa. Dr. Kathryn Whetten is a professor of public policy and global health at Duke University. She holds joint appointments in community and family medicine and nursing. She is the director of the Center for Health Policy and Health Inequities Research and is the research director for the Hart Fellows Program. Dr. Whetten assisted in the creation of Duke’s Global Health Institute, of which she is a member. Dr. Whetten’s research focuses on understanding disparities in health and well-being by taking into ac- count characteristics at the individual, family, community, and policy levels. Her research attempts to account for lifecourse events, such as childhood trauma, neglect, and abuse on current beliefs, health-related behaviors, and health outcomes. She then tests interventions designed to mitigate past negative experiences and improve outcomes. The target audience for her research is health policy analysts and decision makers, administrators, and clinicians. Dr. Whetten’s area of study involves the identification of barri- ers to positive health outcomes, the creation of models of care that reduce barriers to care in a changing financial environment, the evaluation of such models, and engaging in the policy debate. Much of Dr. Whetten’s current research focuses on two of the most difficult populations to serve: those living with HIV, mental health, and/or substance disorders living around the world and children who have been orphaned or abandoned. Dr. Whetten has led more than 20 federally funded research grants and is the author of 3 books and more than 60 peer-reviewed articles. Currently, Dr. Whetten and her intervention, service, and research team have research projects that address issues surrounding HIV/AIDS, mental health, substance abuse, be- ing orphaned, social justice, and poverty in the U.S. Deep South, Tanzania, Kenya, Ethiopia, India (including Nagaland), Cambodia, Malawi, Cam- eroon, and Russia. A few of the research projects are “Positive Outcomes for Children Orphaned by AIDS,” “Coping with HIV/AIDS in Tanzania,” “Integrative Treatment Model for Substance Abusing Women in Russia,” and the “North Carolina HIV/AIDS Training Network.” Dr. Whetten re- ceived her Ph.D. in population health research at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Dr. Catherine M. Wilfert graduated with distinction from Stanford College in 1958 and then attended Harvard Medical School. Her internship was at Boston City Hospital, and her residency was at North Carolina Baptist Hos- pital and Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Boston. In 1964, Dr. Wilfert

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806 EVALUATION OF PEPFAR returned to Boston, where she continued to work in infectious diseases in pediatrics and medicine. In 1971, she went to Duke University School of Medicine, where she achieved the rank of division chief of Pediatric Infec- tious Diseases and professor in the Department of Pediatrics (1976–1994) and professor in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology. In 1996, she left Duke to become the scientific director of the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation. Dr. Wilfert’s work, since the onset of AIDS, has primarily been focused on the eradication of pediatric AIDS, and she is considered a seminal investigator in the field. She guided the National Institutes of Health AIDS Clinical Trials Group when the efficacy of using doses of AZT to reduce the incidence of mother-to-child transmission of HIV was established. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV in the United States is estimated to have been reduced to fewer than 200 cases per year. Dr. Wilfert has worked to reduce mother-to-infant transmission of AIDS in developing countries around the world. She has been on the editorial board of numerous publications and has served as a consultant for private companies, as well as U.S. and state governments. She is the recipient of many awards, including the 1997 Award of Recognition for Outstanding Contributions to Advancing the Prevention of Perinatal Transmission at A Global Strategies Conference for the Prevention of Mothers-to-Infants HIV Transmission. She also received a Lifetime Achievement Award in HIV from the Third International Meeting on HIV in India in 2001 and in 2004, was given the Distinguished Award of Honor for Love of Humanity Especially in the Third World from the Cameroon Baptist Convention on Occasion of Its 50th Anniversary Celebration. She was inducted into the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 1999. Dr. Wilfert has served on five prior IOM com- mittees and on the IOM Roundtable for the Development of Drugs and Vaccines Against AIDS.  CONSULTANTS Dr. Sharon Knight served as a qualitative research consultant for this evaluation. She is a professor of health education and promotion at East Carolina University and former associate dean of the College of Health and Human Performance. She teaches graduate-level academic courses on quali- tative research, including an interdisciplinary qualitative research course in the health sciences, and mentors graduate students in conducting qualita- tive research. She has more than two decades experience as a qualitative researcher and holds a certificate in qualitative research from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Nursing. She most recently served on a Macy Foundation–funded project titled “The National Initia-

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APPENDIX D 807 tive on Gender, Culture, and Leadership in Medicine.” She has published more than 40 refereed journal articles and 2 books. Kathryn Tucker is a statistical scientist at Statistics Collaborative, Inc. (SCI), where she has worked since 2001. At SCI, Ms. Tucker has worked with clinical trials in a variety of therapeutic areas, including cardiology, oncology, tropical and infectious diseases, allergies, genetic disorders, ra- diographic imaging, and pre-clinical studies of decompression sickness. She has served as the independent statistician reporting to data-monitoring committees for several multi-center Phase 1, 2, and 3 trials. In this role, she oversees the preparation of interim statistical analysis plans and interim monitoring reports. As a consulting statistician for clients conducting clini- cal and pre-clinical studies, she helps design study protocols, determines appropriate sample sizes and power calculations, and writes final statistical reports and clinical study reports. Ms. Tucker manages biostatistical and programming staff on her projects, including their development of analysis data sets and presentations. She has also developed and validated random- ization schedules and designed case report forms and databases for several Phase 1, Phase 2, and field trials in malaria. Since 2004, Ms. Tucker has also served as SCI’s Director of Quality Assurance, maintaining corporate policies and procedures and overseeing employee training. She received her B.S. magna cum laude in statistics with a minor in mathematics and her M.S. in statistics from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Dr. Janet Wittes is president of Statistics Collaborative, Inc., which she founded in 1990. Her previous positions were as a biostatistician in gov- ernment (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Department of Veterans Affairs) and as a faculty member in the Department of Math- ematical Sciences at Hunter College of The City University of New York. Her research has focused on randomized clinical trials, capture-recapture methods in epidemiology, sample size recalculation problems in clinical studies, and incorporation of subjective outcomes in clinical trials. She is a member of many advisory committees for government and industry. She has been a statistician for studies of prevention of HIV/AIDS in South Africa and studies of malaria vaccines in Thailand and sub-Saharan Africa. She is a fellow of the American Statistical Association, the Society for Clinical Trials, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science and an elected member of the International Statistical Institute. She received her A.B. in mathematics from Radcliffe College (1964) and her M.A. and Ph.D. in statistics from Harvard University (1965, 1970).

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808 EVALUATION OF PEPFAR IOM STAFF Kimberly A. Scott joined the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM’s) Board on Global Health in September 2005 as a senior program officer. She has di- rected several studies and activities, including the Committee for the Evalu- ation of the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief Implementation; the Planning Committee on Preventing Violence in Low- and Middle-Income Countries; the Committee on the Assessment of the Role of Intermit- tent Preventive Treatment for Malaria in Infants; and the Committee on Achieving Global Sustainable Surveillance for Zoonotic Diseases. She was the support program officer for workshop planning on the Committee on Depression, Parenting Practices, and the Health Development of Children. She is currently the study co-director for the evaluation of U.S. global HIV/AIDS programs. Prior to joining the IOM, she was an analyst on the health care team at the U.S. Government Accountability Office. Before her graduate studies at Duke University’s Center for Health Policy, Law, and Management, she coordinated programs for integrating mental health ser- vices into the continuum of care for people living with and affected by HIV/ AIDS in 54 counties in North Carolina, including training of mental health professionals and HIV case managers for the provision of clinical services to people living with HIV/AIDS. For 6 years, she served as the Executive Director of a Ryan White–funded HIV/AIDS consortium, developing a comprehensive ambulatory care system for 21 mostly rural counties in North Carolina. Previous North Carolina health-related committee service includes a number of advisory committees to the governor of North Caro- lina and to the secretary of the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services (NC DHHS) for programmatic and policy issues related to HIV care, prevention, and treatment, including the formation of the Title II Ryan White AIDS Care Consortia. She received a Lifetime Achievement Award from the AIDS Care Branch in the NC DHHS. As an Echols Scholar, she received her B.A. in psychology from the University of Virginia. She received an M.S.P.H., with a concentration in health policy analysis, from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Dr. Bridget B. Kelly is a senior program officer with the Institute of Medi- cine’s (IOM’s) Board on Global Health. Prior to co-directing this evalu- ation of U.S. global HIV/AIDS programs, she was the study director for the report, Promoting Cardiovascular Health in the Developing World: A Critical Challenge to Achieve Global Health, and continues to direct a series of related follow-up activities, including the workshop Country-Level Decision Making for Control of Chronic Diseases. She serves on the Senior Advisory Council for the journal Global Heart and the advisory working group for the National Forum for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention’s

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APPENDIX D 809 Policy Depot. Prior to joining the IOM’s Board on Global Health in Sep- tember 2008, she worked in the Board on Children, Youth, and Families for projects on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders among children, youth, and young adults; on depression, parenting prac- tices, and child development; and on strengthening benefit-cost methodol- ogy for the evaluation of early childhood interventions. She first came to the National Academies in September 2007 as a Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow. She holds both an M.D. and a Ph.D. in neurobiology, which she completed as part of the Medical Scientist Training Program at Duke University. She received her B.A. in biology and neuroscience from Williams College, where she was also the recipient of the Hubbard Hutchinson Fellowship in fine arts. In addition to her health policy experience and background in science and medicine, she has more than 10 years of experience in grassroots nonprofit arts administration. Margaret Hawthorne is a program officer with the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM’s) Board on Global Health. Prior to joining the IOM, she was an epi- demiologist at the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) in the TB/HIV/STD Epidemiology and Surveillance Branch. While at DSHS, she served as the HIV Incidence Surveillance and Viral Resistance Coordinator for the state, overseeing the surveillance systems used to track the leading edge of the HIV epidemic in Texas. She previously worked as a research program manager at the Institute for Global Tobacco Control at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. There she developed capacity-building trainings and in-country workshops aimed at building tobacco control leadership globally. Ms. Hawthornes received an M.P.H. in health systems and policy from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and a B.A. in business from Southwestern University. Livia Navon is a program officer with the Institute of Medicine’s Board on Global Health. Prior to joining the IOM, she worked as the district epi- demiologist for the Alexandria Health Department (AHD), as part of the Virginia Department of Health. While working at the AHD, she worked on emergency preparedness and response activities, including the local response to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, and investigated communicable disease outbreaks. Previously, she worked at the National Center for Health Statistics on the annual Health, United States report and for the Wisconsin Department of Health Services, as an environmental epidemiologist for the Wisconsin Asthma Program. She received her B.S. in biochemistry with a minor in chemistry from the University of Florida and an M.S. in nutri- tion from Cornell University. She completed her dietetic internship at the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics.

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810 EVALUATION OF PEPFAR Dr. Carmen Cecilia Mundaca is serving as a postdoctoral fellow with the Institute of Medicine’s Board on Global Health. Previously, she served as the Head of the Surveillance Center of the Emerging Infections Program in the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment in Lima, Peru. In that role, Dr. Mundaca led the successful implementation of a technology-based disease surveillance system (Alerta DISAMAR, a partnership involving the Peruvian Navy and the U.S. Navy) at sites across the nation and initiated its broad adoption in five other countries in South America, and provided the mechanism for reporting of 45 diseases/syndromes via a telephone or a computer with Internet access. She also led the collaborative syndromic surveillance pilot implementation in the Peruvian Ministry of Health. Dr. Mundaca was part of the Early Warning Outbreak Recognition System (EWORS) Working Group and participated in several studies including a field visit to evaluate the performance of the system in Laos PDR. She ob- tained her M.D. from San Marcos University, Lima, Peru, and her M.P.H. degree from the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in Bethesda, Maryland, where she is currently pursuing her Dr.P.H. degree. Her dissertation work will focus on developing a framework that will serve as a guideline for the implementation of disease surveillance systems in developing countries. Dr. Mundaca successfully completed a Certificate in Emerging Infectious Disease Epidemiology at the University of Iowa. Ijeoma Emenanjo spent 5 years working on the Board on African Science Academy Development, where he primarily mentored the staff at the Na- tional Academy of Nigeria on conducting convening activities and con- sensus studies. Mr. Emenanjo also served with the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM’s) Board on Global Health as a senior program associate for the IOM evaluation of PEPFAR and as a research associate for the Committee on the Assessment of the Role of Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria in Infants. Before coming to the National Academies in 2004, he worked on policy implementation issues such as HIV/AIDS prevention policy and electoral administration in Anglophone and Francophone West Africa. Prior to his transition into international policy work, Mr. Emenanjo was a polymeric materials engineer at the U.S. Army Research Lab in Adelphi, Maryland, and at the National Institutes of Standards and Technology’s Building and Fire Research Lab. He received his B.S. in chemical engineer- ing with a minor in economics from Howard University, and his M.P.P. from the University of Maryland, Baltimore County. Mila C. González Dávila is a Dr.P.H. candidate in the Department of Epide- miology at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health in New York City. Prior to starting her doctoral studies in September 2012, she was an associate program officer with the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM’s)

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APPENDIX D 811 Board on Global Health, having joined as a research assistant in 2007. Starting in 2009, she worked with the Committee for the Outcome and Impact Evaluation of U.S. Global HIV/AIDS Programs Implemented under the Lantos/Hyde Act of 2008. Before working on the IOM evaluation of PEPFAR, she provided research support on two IOM reports, Assessment of the Role of Intermittent Preventive Treatment for Malaria in Infants (2008) and Achieving Sustainable Global Capacity for Surveillance and Response to Emerging Diseases of Zoonotic Origin (2009). Previously, she worked as a clinical research assistant for a study evaluating the effects that exposure to violence has on young mothers with preschool-age children at the Children’s Research Institute of the Children’s National Medical Center in Washington, DC. She received her M.P.H. in global health promotion from The George Washington University School of Public Health and her B.S. in physiology and neurobiology from the University of Maryland at College Park. Kristen Danforth is a research associate with the Institute of Medicine’s Board on Global Health. Prior to this study she worked on the report Promoting Cardiovascular Health in the Developing World: A Critical Challenge to Achieve Global Health (2010). She received her B.S. in in- ternational health from Georgetown University and her M.P.H. from the Bloomberg School of Public Health at Johns Hopkins University. Rebecca Marksamer is a research associate with the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM’s) Board on Global Health. Prior to joining the IOM, she worked in the international programs department at Africare, a development as- sistance and humanitarian aid organization for Africa. She received her bachelor’s degree in biological basis of behavior from the University of Pennsylvania and her M.P.H. in global health policy from The George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services. Kate Meck is a research associate with the Institute of Medicine’s Board on Global Health. She previously worked with the Committee on the U.S. Commitment to Global Health, the follow-up to America’s Vital Interest in Global Health (1997). Ms. Meck received her B.A. in international relations, with minors in economics and Spanish & Latin American Stud- ies, from American University in 2007, and her M.P.H. in global health program design, monitoring, and evaluation from The George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services. Collin Weinberger is a research associate at the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM’s) Board on Global Health. In addition to this study, he has served as research staff for the IOM’s Forum on Microbial Threats and for the

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812 EVALUATION OF PEPFAR recent report, Promoting Cardiovascular Health in the Developing World: A Critical Challenge to Achieve Global Health (2010). Prior to joining the IOM, he was a communications associate at Global Health Strategies, a communications and advocacy consultancy specializing in diseases of the developing world. He also spent a year as a volunteer with Partners in Health/Socios en Salud in Lima, Peru, where he worked with the organiza- tion’s children’s health, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS programs. He received his bachelor’s degree in health and societies from the University of Pennsylvania and is a 2013 M.P.H. candidate at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Leigh Carroll is a research assistant with the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM’s) Board on Global Health. She is involved in dissemination activities for the 2010 report Promoting Cardiovascular Health in the Developing World: A Critical Challenge to Achieve Global Health as well as in the outcome and impact evaluation of PEPFAR. Before joining the IOM, she spent 2 years in rural Tanzania teaching high school science through the Peace Corps. She received her B.S. in neuroscience from the University of Rochester. Tessa Burke worked on the evaluation of PEPFAR as a senior program as- sistant with the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM’s) Board on Global Health. Prior to joining the IOM, she worked as a senior program coordinator in the technical leadership office of Jhpiego, an international nongovernmen- tal organization affiliated with Johns Hopkins University. She received her bachelor’s degree from Georgetown University, graduating with a major in international health and a minor in studio art. Angela Christian is a program associate with the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM’s) Board on Global Health. She currently serves as the administra- tive assistant for the Board on Global Health and the administrator for the Board on African Science Academy Development Initiative. Over the past 5 years, Ms. Christian has managed and facilitated international conferences in Senegal, the United Kingdom, Ghana, and South Africa while mentoring local administrators. Prior to her current position, she served as a senior program assistant to the PEPFAR evaluation and Department of Defense Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System Influenza Assessment studies, where she planned and managed logistics for about 19 international site visits to Africa, Asia, and Latin America for committee members from different parts of the world. Prior to joining the IOM, she was a practice manager of a private orthopedic surgery at the Washington Hospital Center. She has more than 15 years’ experience in business and project management, serving as a Small Business Advisor with Empretec Ghana Foundation (a United Nations Project), an administrative assistant

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APPENDIX D 813 at the American College of Cardiology, and a project manager with a pri- vate events and project management firm implementing national projects and private initiatives in Ghana. Ms. Christian is currently pursuing a program in global business and public policy at the University of Maryland and also has a certificate in project management. Wendy E. Keenan is a program associate with the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the National Research Council (NRC) Board on Children, Youth, and Families. She helps organize planning meetings and workshops that cover current issues related to children, youth, and families and also provides administrative and research support to the Board’s various pro- gram committees. Ms. Keenan has been on the National Academies’ staff for more than 10 years and has worked on studies for both the IOM and the NRC. As a senior program assistant, she worked with the NRC’s Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences. Prior to joining the Na- tional Academies, she taught English as a second language for Washington, DC, public schools. She received a B.A. in sociology from Pennsylvania State University and took graduate courses in social and public policy from Georgetown University. Dr. Kimber Bogard is the director of the Board on Children, Youth, and Families at the Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. In this role, she directs a range of activities that address emerging and criti- cal issues in the lives of children, youth, and families. She was previously the associate director of the Institute of Human Development and Social Change at New York University where she managed a portfolio of grants and contracts that examined child development within a changing global context. A developmental psychologist by training, Dr. Bogard has worked with numerous organizations that support children’s cognitive, affective, and behavioral development in early childhood education through the high school years, including the Foundation for Child Development, W.K. Kellogg Foundation, the Center for Children’s Initiatives, and Partners for a Bright and Healthy Haiti. In 2006, she received her Ph.D. from Fordham University in applied developmental psychology, and she also holds a mas- ter’s degree from Columbia University-Teachers College where she studied risk and prevention strategies in adolescents. Dr. Bogard often speaks to various audiences about child development in the context of families and schools, with a keen focus on how policies influence developmental, edu- cational, and health trajectories. Rosemary Chalk is the former Director of the Board on Children, Youth, and Families, a joint effort of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the National Research Council (NRC). She is a policy analyst who had been a

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814 EVALUATION OF PEPFAR study director at the National Academies since 1987. She directed or served as a senior staff member for more than a dozen studies in the IOM and the NRC, including studies on vaccine finance, the public health infrastructure for immunization, family violence, child abuse and neglect, research ethics and misconduct in science, and education finance. From 2000 to 2003, she also directed a research project on the development of child well-being indicators for the child welfare system at Child Trends in Washington, DC. She has previously served as a consultant for science and society research projects at the Harvard School of Public Health and was an Exxon research fellow in the Program on Science, Technology, and Society at the Massachu- setts Institute of Technology. She was the program head of the Committee on Scientific Freedom and Responsibility of the American Association for the Advancement of Science from 1976 to 1986. She has a B.A. in foreign affairs from the University of Cincinnati. Dr. Patrick Kelley joined the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in July 2003 as the director of the Board on Global Health. He has subsequently also been appointed the director of the Board on African Science Academy Develop- ment. Dr. Kelley has overseen a portfolio of IOM expert consensus studies and convening activities on subjects as wide ranging as the U.S. commitment to global health, priorities for building food and drug regulatory capacity in developing countries, sustainable surveillance for zoonotic infections, and promoting cardiovascular health in the developing world. He also directs a unique capacity-building effort, the African Science Academy Development Initiative, which over 11 years aims to strengthen the capacity of African academies to advise their governments on scientific matters. Prior to joining the National Academies, Dr. Kelley served in the U.S. Army for more than 23 years as a physician, residency director, epidemiologist, and program manager. In his last Department of Defense (DoD) position, Dr. Kelley founded and directed the DoD Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System. This responsibility entailed managing surveillance and capacity-building partnerships with numerous elements of the federal government and with health ministries in more than 45 developing coun- tries. Dr. Kelley is an experienced communicator, having lectured in English or Spanish in more than 20 countries and having published more than 70 scholarly papers, book chapters, and monographs. Dr. Kelley obtained his M.D. from the University of Virginia and his Dr.P.H. in epidemiology from the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health.