photoelectrochemical and high-temperature thermal water splitting, and biological generation.

A significant factor in fuel cost is the means for delivering, storing, and dispensing hydrogen. In a fully developed hydrogen economy, the postproduction part of the supply system for high-pressure hydrogen will probably cost as much and consume as much energy as production does (NRC/NAE, 2004).

In the past 2 years there have been significant achievements in hydrogen production and distribution. The projected cost of transport by tube trailers has been reduced by 40 to 50 percent. In addition, the feasibility of using electrochemical compression of hydrogen instead of expensive mechanical compression has been established, providing a path for further cost reduction.

Recommendation S-9 (4-1 in Chapter 4). The DOE should seek the strategic input of the Executive Steering Group (ESG) of U.S. DRIVE. The ESG could provide advice on all DOE fuel programs potentially critical to providing the fuel technologies needed in order for advanced vehicle technologies to achieve reductions in U.S. petroleum dependence and greenhouse gas emissions, and DOE should subsequently make appropriate program revisions to address user needs to the extent possible.

Regardless of the source of hydrogen, it is clear that for there to be the possibility of widespread HFCVs, there must be the availability of hydrogen for refueling.

GRID IMPACTS OF ELECTRICITY AS AN
ENERGY SOURCE FOR VEHICLES

The inclusion of battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in U.S. DRIVE makes it important to consider the impact of such vehicles on the electric grid. Reasonable forecasts of market penetration indicate that the increased national energy demands appear unlikely to challenge the capacity of the U.S. electric grid. However, much evidence suggests that clustering of PHEV and BEV owners could result in local loads that exceed the capacity of local transformers, especially for fast charging during hours of peak electricity use. DOE leadership in close collaboration with current and future providers of electricity will be critical to the timely and effective resolution of these issues.

BIOFUELS AND THE PARTNERSHIP

Within DOE, the Biomass Program has the responsibility for managing the development and progress for the bulk of the needs for biofuels, including biomass production, feedstock logistics, and biomass conversion to biofuel. Historically DOE focused on end use through the Partnership. This split of focus puts the



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