responsibility for making and delivering biofuels with the Biomass Program, and R&D for the LDV drive train with the Partnership.

Starting in 2010 the Biomass Program reduced its ethanol programs and increased its programs for making biofuels that are indistinguishable from petroleum-based products, sometimes called drop-in fuels, which do not require special ICE technology or distribution systems. These can be produced as gasoline, jet fuel, or diesel-type finished products. Biomass sources include woody biomass and energy crops. Considering a scenario in which the role of ethanol is diminished, a U.S. DRIVE focus on ICE development that can handle drop-in fuels and other biofuels is warranted.

NATURAL GAS AND THE PARTNERSHIP

Although natural gas and light-duty vehicles using compressed natural gas (CNG) are not part of the U.S. DRIVE effort, R&D on CNG storage tanks and on refueling systems is being addressed by DOE’s Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) in its Methane Opportunities for Vehicular Energy (MOVE) program.

Recommendation S-10 (4-7 in Chapter 4). U.S. DRIVE should include the CNG vehicle and possible improvements to its analysis efforts in order to make consistent comparisons across different pathways and to help determine whether CNG vehicles should be part of its ongoing vehicle program.

REFERENCES

NRC (National Research Council). 2005. Review of the Research Program of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership: First Report. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2008a. Review of the Research Program of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership: Second Report. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2008b. Transitions to Alternative Transportation Technologies—A Focus on Hydrogen. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2010. Review of the Research Program of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership: Third Report. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.

NRC/NAE (National Research Council/National Academy of Engineering). 2004. The Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities, Costs, Barriers, and R&D Needs. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.

U.S. DRIVE. 2012. US DRIVE, Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle Efficiency and Energy Sustainability. Partnership Plan, February. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy.



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