efforts to areas where enhanced fundamental understanding is most needed to improve internal combustion engine and aftertreatment power-train performance. [NRC, 2010, p. 64.]

Recommendation [3-2]. The DOE should continue to support the development and dissemination of the open-source-code computational fluid dynamics program KIVA. This tool is critical to integrating the new understanding of combustion and emission processes into a framework that allows it to be used to guide further research and identify fuel and engine operating conditions that will maximize reductions in fuel consumption over the entire operating range of the engine. [NRC, 2010, p. 64.]

Recommendation [3-3]. The advanced combustion and emission control technical team should engage with the biofuels research community to ensure that the biofuels research which the team is conducting is consistent with and leverages the latest developments in the field of biofuels R&D. [NRC, 2010, p. 64.]

Recommendation [3-4]. As the vehicle mix within the on-the-road light-duty vehicle fleet is likely to change with the implementation of the new fuel economy standards, the advanced combustion and emission control technical team should interface with the system modeling technical team to make sure that their research programs are consistent with the changing demands for the optimal matching of the engine operational regimes, power management, and emission control that will be imposed on the internal combustion engine and hybrid power trains as the vehicle characteristics evolve. [NRC, 2010, pp. 64-65.]

Fuel Cells

Recommendation [3-5]. As the auto companies begin to down-select technologies for fuel cell vehicles, they must focus their limited R&D resources on development engineering for the platform selected and move into the competitive (as distinct from precompetitive) arena. The only way that alternative fuel cell systems and components can receive sufficient attention to mitigate the overall program risk is for the precompetitive program, sponsored largely by the DOE, to support them. Thus, the DOE should increase its focus on precompetitive R&D related to both the fuel cell stack and the balance of plant—the other components of the fuel cell system required for successful operation, such as controls, fuel storage, instrumentation, and so forth—to develop alternatives to the down-selected technologies. [NRC, 2010, p. 72.]

Recommendation [3-6]. The DOE should incorporate more of the advanced, most recent, nonproprietary OEM system configuration specifications in the various systems and cost models for fuel cell power plants. Systems configurations no

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