and delivery of hydrogen; in addition, there is recent attention on the interface between the nation’s electricity delivery system and the charging of EVs (e.g., plug-in hybrid electric vehicles [PHEVs] or battery electric vehicles [BEVs]). There are annual DOE program reviews, in addition to many DOE-sponsored conferences and workshops, as well as their considerable participation in professional society conferences, to help keep all participants on the Partnership technical teams well informed. To these teams are added a vehicle systems and analysis technical team (VSATT) and a fuel pathway integration technical team (FPITT) that is focused on hydrogen. This organizational structure (shown in Figure 1-2 in Chapter 1) is based on project activities that focus on individual technical issues, as well as on total vehicle system integration and the total fuel chain. In addition, there is a need in the Partnership for a broader strategic perspective, which ostensibly the Executive Steering Group (ESG) provides. The system integration and performance issues require a systems analysis approach on several levels, necessitating a variety of systems analysis tools.

Systems Analysis

In its previous reports, the NRC recommended substantial activity to develop systems analysis tools to help the Partnership meet its goals. For example, in the NRC Phase 1 report, it was recommended that “an ongoing, integrated, well-to-wheels assessment be made of the Partnership’s progress toward its overall objectives” (NRC, 2005, p. 9). In the NRC Phase 2 report, it was recommended that “the DOE should accelerate the development and validation of modeling tools that can be used to assess the roles of various propulsion systems and vehicle technologies and fuels, and utilize them to determine the impact of the various opportunities on the overall Partnership goals of reducing petroleum use and air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions” (NRC, 2008, p. 13).

In the Phase 3 report, it was recognized that the Partnership had made substantial progress on the development and application of these systems analysis tools, that “well-to-wheels” (or “source-to-wheels”) analysis was now routinely used across the Partnership, and that modeling and simulation tools were widely used within the technical teams (NRC, 2010, p. 34). In the current review, the committee found continued widespread use of systems analysis tools, including the migration to using the Autonomie model developed under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and General Motors (GM), with architecture based on the Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model described in the Phase 3 report. Overall, the development and deployment of systems analysis tools and models at the vehicle and fuel pathway level continue to be impressive and fully responsive to the committee’s specific prior recommendations. However, the VSATT and FPITT systems analysis teams operate in a reactive support role to the individual technical teams: indeed, in the transition from the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership



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