E

Glossary, Conversion Factors, and Acronyms and Abbreviations

GLOSSARY

aerodynamic resistance Velocity-dependent resistance from movement by a vehicle through the air. Also known as aerodynamic drag.
alcohol fuels Fuels that are organic compounds that contain one or more hydroxyl groups (-OH) attached to one or more of the carbon atoms in a hydrocarbon chain. Common alcohol fuels include ethanol, methanol, and butanol.
algae A group of aquatic eukaryotic organisms that contain chlorophyll. Algae can be microscopic in size (microalgae) or observable to the eye (macroalgae).
aliphatic alcohol An alcohol that contains a hydrocarbon fragment derived from a fully saturated, nonaromatic hydrocarbon.
anoxia Condition characterized by the absence of dissolved oxygen.
biodiesel Diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl esters derived from biological material such as vegetable oils, animal fats, and algal oils.
biofuel Fuel derived from biomass.
biomass Any organic matter that is available on a renewable or recurring basis, including agricultural crops and trees, wood and wood residues, plants (including aquatic plants), grasses, animal residues, municipal residues, and other residue materials.
biorefinery A commercial-scale processing facility that successfully integrates all processes for extracting and converting biomass feedstocks into a spectrum of saleable products.
body in white (BIW) The stage in vehicle manufacture when all the fixed sheet metal components are fastened together. It does not include movable parts such as doors, hood, and trunk (these are considered closures).
carbon sequestration Net transfer of atmospheric carbon dioxide into long-lived carbon storage.
cellulose A polymer of glucose, (C6H10O5)n, that forms the cell walls of most plants.
charge-depleting (CD) mode Electric vehicles powered by their batteries which are discharging.
charge-sustaining (CS) mode Operation of a PHEV on its engine because the battery is discharged.


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E Glossary, Conversion Factors, and Acronyms and Abbreviations GLOSSARY aerodynamic resistance Velocity-dependent resistance from movement by a vehicle through the air. Also known as aerodynamic drag. alcohol fuels Fuels that are organic compounds that contain one or more hydroxyl groups (-OH) attached to one or more of the carbon atoms in a hydrocarbon chain. Common alcohol fuels include ethanol, methanol, and butanol. algae A group of aquatic eukaryotic organisms that contain chlorophyll. Algae can be microscopic in size (microalgae) or observable to the eye (macroalgae). aliphatic alcohol An alcohol that contains a hydrocarbon fragment derived from a fully saturated, nonaromatic hydrocarbon. anoxia Condition characterized by the absence of dissolved oxygen. biodiesel Diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl esters derived from biological material such as vegetable oils, animal fats, and algal oils. biofuel Fuel derived from biomass. biomass Any organic matter that is available on a renewable or recurring basis, including agricultural crops and trees, wood and wood residues, plants (including aquatic plants), grasses, animal residues, municipal residues, and other residue materials. biorefinery A commercial-scale processing facility that successfully integrates all processes for extracting and converting biomass feedstocks into a spectrum of saleable products. body in white (BIW) The stage in vehicle manufacture when all the fixed sheet metal components are fastened together. It does not include movable parts such as doors, hood, and trunk (these are considered closures). carbon sequestration Net transfer of atmospheric carbon dioxide into long-lived carbon storage. cellulose A polymer of glucose, (C6H10O5)n, that forms the cell walls of most plants. charge-depleting (CD) mode Electric vehicles powered by their batteries which are discharging. charge-sustaining (CS) mode Operation of a PHEV on its engine because the battery is discharged. 207

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drivetrain The power source (an engine or motor) and the components of the vehicle used to transmit this power to the wheels (transmission, drive shaft, etc.). Also called powertrain. drop-in fuel A non-petroleum fuel that is compatible with existing infrastructure for petroleum-based fuels with little to no modification required of current ICE vehicles. engine heat recovery About one-third of fuel energy is rejected as heat in the exhaust. Some of this energy can be recovered through mechanical or electric turbines (turbocompounding) or thermoelectric conversion and used to improve the efficiency of the vehicle. ethanol Best known as the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, ethanol can be used both as a fuel additive (in mixtures with gasoline, as in the E10 standard) and as a liquid fuel itself. exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) EGR recirculates cooled exhaust gas back through the engine to reduce throttling losses and allow operation over a wider range of load and speed. gasoline direct injection (GDI) Gasoline is directly injected into the combustion chamber of the engine, providing better fuel vaporization and more stable combustion. GDI reduces fuel consumption across the range of engine operations. greenhouse gas (GHG) An atmospheric gas that absorbs and emits radiation in the infrared range. Common GHGs are CO2, NOx, CH4, and ozone (O3). hemicellulose A matrix of polysaccharides present in almost all plant cell walls with cellulose. Highway Fuel Economy Test A component of the federal test procedure that simulates free- (HWFET) flowing highway driving. hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) A vehicle combining a fuel-driven engine, electric motor(s), and a battery or ultracapacitor. It is designed to reduce fuel consumption primarily by turning off the engine during idle, braking, and coasting as well as by capturing braking energy using regenerative brakes. Types of hybrid vehicles include micro- or stop/start hybrids, P2 hybrids, and power-split hybrids. hydrocarbon fuels Fuels that are organic compounds containing primarily carbon and hydrogen and only minor amounts of other atoms such as sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen. Most hydrocarbon fuels are derived from petroleum. hypoxia Low dissolved oxygen concentrations, generally less than 2 milligrams per liter. internal combustion engine An engine in which the combustion of a fuel (most often gasoline or (ICE) diesel) drives a piston, producing useful mechanical energy. land cover Plants or physical cover over the surface of land. land use Anthropogenic activities, such as agriculture, forestry, and urban development, that alter land-surface processes, including biogeochemistry, hydrology, and biodiversity. 208

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lignin A complex polymer that occurs in certain plant cell walls. Lignin binds to cellulose fibers and hardens and strengthens the cell walls of plants. lignocellulosic biomass Plant biomass composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. multi-material vehicle (MMV) A vehicle made primarily of lightweight components, including high-strength steel, aluminum, magnesium, and carbon fiber. pilot demonstration A small, pre-commercial facility intended to test the viability of a process. These facilities typically do not include fully integrated processes. A pilot demonstration of a biofuel refinery might process 1-10 dry tons of feedstock per day. plug-in electric vehicle A vehicle propelled (at least in part) by an electric motor that draws its power from a battery that stores energy from the electric grid. (PEV) This includes both plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs). powertrain See drivetrain. pumping loss The energy that must be expended in delivering air into an ICE. retail price equivalent (RPE) A multiplier applied to the manufacturing cost of a component to account for indirect costs of manufacturing, meant to represent the fraction of the retail price of the fully assembled product associated with the component. rolling resistance The resistance to vehicle movement due to friction in the tires and from the road. It is directly proportional to the mass of the vehicle and depends on tire design (shape, tread, materials) and inflation pressure. tractive energy Energy delivered by the drivetrain to a vehicle’s wheels. turbocharging A process in which exhaust gas drives a turbine that compresses the air entering the engine cylinders, increasing the amount of fuel that can be burned in the cylinders and thus increasing torque and power output. Urban Dynamometer Driving A component of the federal test procedure that simulates stop-and-go Schedule (UDDS) driving. US06 Supplemental Federal A driving schedule test that simulates high speeds as well as hard Test Procedure (SFTP) acceleration and braking. 209

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CONVERSION FACTORS Mass 1 ounce (oz) ≡ 28.3495231 g 1 pound ≡ 0.453592 kg 1 (short) ton ≡ 0.907185 (metric) tonne Length 1 ft (foot) ≡ 0.3048 m (meter) 1 mile ≡ 1.609344 km (kilometer) Area 1 mi2 ≡ 2.589988 km2 1 acre ≡ 0.404685642 hectare (ha) Volume 1 ft3 ≡ 0.028317 m3 1 gallon ≡ 3.785412 liter (L) 1 barrel ≡ 158.987295 L Energy 1 British thermal unit (Btu) ≡ 0.001055 megajoule (MJ) Pressure 1 pound per square inch (psi) ≡ 6,894.76 Pascal (Pa) Compound units 1 pound per bushel ≡ 17.857143 kg/tonne 1 pound per acre ≡ 1.120851 kg/ha 1 bushel per acre ≡ 0.062768 tonne/ha 1 ton per acre ≡ 2.241702 tonne/ha 1 ounce (oz) per gallon ≡ 7.489152 g/L 1 ounce per Btu ≡ 26,870.16 g/MJ 1 ft3/acre ≡ 0.028317 m3/ac 1 ft3/Btu ≡ 26,839.19 m3/GJ 1 Btu per gallon ≡ 0.000279 MJ/L 210

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ACRONYMS AND ABREVIATIONS ABO Algal Biomass Organization AC alternating current AEF America’s Energy Future AEO Annual Energy Outlook AER all-electric range AFV alternative fuel vehicle Ah ampere-hour AMT automatic conventional manual transmission ANL Argonne National Laboratory ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATR autothermal reforming BAU business as usual bbl barrel BD biodiesel BDT bone dry ton BEV battery electric vehicle BGY billions of gallons per year BIW body in white BLM Bureau of Land Management BLY billion(s) of liters per year BM biomass BMEP brake mean effective pressure BMS battery management system BOP balance of plant Btu British thermal unit CAA Clean Air Act CAFE Corporate Average Fuel Economy CARB California Air Resource Board CBO Congressional Budget Office CBTL coal-and-biomass to liquid fuel CCS carbon capture and storage CD charge depleting CFRC carbon-fiber reinforced composite 211

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CH4 methane CI carbon intensity CID current interrupt device cm centimeter CNG compressed natural gas CNGV compressed natural gas vehicle CO2 carbon dioxide CO2e carbon dioxide equivalent CS charge sustaining CSBP Council on Sustainable Biomass Production CTL coal to liquid (fuel) DAF dissolved air flotation DC direct current DCT dual-clutch transmission DGAT diacylglycerol acyltransferase DME dimethyl ether DNA deoxyribonucleic acid DOE U.S. Department of Energy DOT U.S. Department of Transportation DW dry weight E10 blend of up to 10 percent ethanol and the balance petroleum-based gasoline E15 fuel containing up to 15 percent ethanol by volume E85 fuel containing up to 85 percent ethanol by volume EEA European Environmental Agency EER energy economy ratio EERE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EGR exhaust gas recirculation EIA Energy Information Administration EIOLCA economic input-output approach to LCA EISA Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 EOR enhanced oil recovery EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPAct Energy Policy Act EPCA Energy Policy and Conservation Act 212

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EPRI Electric Power Research Institute ERDA Energy Research and Development Administration EROI energy return on investment EROWI energy return on water invested ESA Ecological Society of America ETA Energy Tax Act EU European Union EV electric vehicle FAME fatty acid methyl ester FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FCEV fuel cell electric vehicle FFV flex-fuel vehicle FHWA Federal Highway Administration Fin make up water addition Fout water purge FT Fischer-Tropsch FTP federal test procedure GBEP Global Bioenergy Partnership GD green diesel GDI gasoline direct injection gge gallon of gasoline equivalent GGT gas guzzler tax GHG greenhouse gas GREET Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation model GTI Gas Technology Institute GTL gas to liquid (fuel) GW gigawatt ha hectare H2 hydrogen HD heavy-duty; horizontal drilling HEV hybrid electric vehicle HF hydraulic fracturing HRAP high rate algal pond HVAC heating, ventilation, and air conditioning 213

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HWFET Highway Fuel Economy Test IANGV International Association for Natural Gas Vehicles IBR Integrated Algal Biorefinery ICCT International Council on Clean Transportation ICE internal combustion engine ICEV internal combustion engine vehicle IHUF Indexed Highway User Fee IISD International Institute for Sustainable Development ILUC indirect land-use change IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPM interior permanent magnet ISO International Organization for Standardization ISSG Invasive Species Specialist Group km kilometer kW kilowatt kWh kilowatt-hour LCA life-cycle assessment LCFS Low Carbon Fuel Standard LDV light-duty vehicle Li-ion lithium ion LLNL Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory LNG liquid natural gas LT light truck LUC land use change MD medium-duty MEA Millennium Ecosystem Assessment MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology MMBPD million barrels per day MMTCO2e million metric ton(s) of CO2 equivalent MPa mega-Pascal mpg miles per gallon mpgge miles per gallon of gasoline equivalent mt metric ton (or tonne) MTBE methyl tertiary-butyl ether 214

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MTG methanol-to-gasoline (process) MY model year NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards NAE National Academy of Engineering NAS National Academy of Sciences NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NBB National Biodiesel Board NEMS National Energy Modeling System NER net energy ratio NETL National Energy Technology Laboratory NEV net energy value NG natural gas NGV natural gas vehicle NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Ni-MH nickel metal-hydride NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NLTS nineteen lower-tier state region NMC nickel-manganese-cobalt oxide NOx mono-nitrogen oxides, including nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) NRC National Research Council NRCS Natural Resources Conservation Service NREL National Renewable Energy Laboratory OBP Office of Biomass Program OEM original equipment manufacturer OMEGA Offshore Membrane Enclosure for Growing Algae ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration OTAG Ozone Transport Assessment Group PAYD pay as you drive PBR photobioreactor PEM proton-exchange membrane PEV plug-in electric vehicle PG&E Pacific Gas and Electric PHEV plug-in hybrid electric vehicle 215

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PHEV## plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with an all-electric range of ## miles PL public law PM permanent magnet PMC polymer-matrix composite PNGV Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles psi pounds per square inch PTC positive temperature coefficient PZEV partial zero emission vehicle quad quadrillion British thermal units (of energy) R&D research and development RD3 research, development, demonstration, and deployment RFS Renewable Fuel Standard RFS2 Renewable Fuel Standard, as amended by EISA RIA regulatory impact analysis RIN Renewable Identification Number RNA ribonucleic acid RNG renewable natural gas RPE retail price equivalent RSB Roundtable on Sustainable Biofuels RSO rapeseed oil SBO soybean oil SCE Southern California Edison scf standard cubic feet SE Southeast SOC state of charge SPM surface-mounted permanent magnet SR switched reluctance SUV sport utility vehicle SVR surface-to-volume ratio SW Southwest TAGs triacylglycerol TAR technical assessment report TCC thermochemical conversion tcf trillion(s) of standard cubic feet 216

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TEPCO Tokyo Electric Power Company TOU time of use TSCA Toxic Substances Control Act TTW tank to wheel UDDS Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule USCAP U.S. Climate Action Partnership USDA-RD U.S. Department of Agriculture Rural Development USGS United States Geological Survey VEETC volumetric ethanol excise tax credit VMT vehicle miles traveled VOC volatile organic compound W watt WF water footprint Wh watt-hour WHC Wildlife Habitat Council WTT well to tank WTW well to wheels WW wastewater WWTP wastewater treatment plant xcontrol total dissolved solids in water (defined control point) xout total dissolved solids in purge ZEV zero-emission vehicle 217