lignin A complex polymer that occurs in certain plant cell walls. Lignin binds to cellulose fibers and hardens and strengthens the cell walls of plants.
lignocellulosic biomass Plant biomass composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin.
multi-material vehicle (MMV) A vehicle made primarily of lightweight components, including high-strength steel, aluminum, magnesium, and carbon fiber.
pilot demonstration A small, pre-commercial facility intended to test the viability of a process. These facilities typically do not include fully integrated processes. A pilot demonstration of a biofuel refinery might process 1-10 dry tons of feedstock per day.
plug-in electric vehicle
A vehicle propelled (at least in part) by an electric motor that draws its power from a battery that stores energy from the electric grid. This includes both plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs).
powertrain See drivetrain.
pumping loss The energy that must be expended in delivering air into an ICE.
retail price equivalent (RPE) A multiplier applied to the manufacturing cost of a component to account for indirect costs of manufacturing, meant to represent the fraction of the retail price of the fully assembled product associated with the component.
rolling resistance The resistance to vehicle movement due to friction in the tires and from the road. It is directly proportional to the mass of the vehicle and depends on tire design (shape, tread, materials) and inflation pressure.
tractive energy Energy delivered by the drivetrain to a vehicle’s wheels.
turbocharging A process in which exhaust gas drives a turbine that compresses the air entering the engine cylinders, increasing the amount of fuel that can be burned in the cylinders and thus increasing torque and power output.
Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) A component of the federal test procedure that simulates stop-and-go driving.
US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP) A driving schedule test that simulates high speeds as well as hard acceleration and braking.

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