on their energy content relative to ethanol. Therefore, the mandate can be met with lower volumes of fuels with higher energy contents.

RFS2 requires that all renewable fuels be made from feedstocks that meet a new definition of renewable biomass. In EISA 2007, the definition of renewable biomass incorporates land restrictions for planted crops, crop residue, planted trees and tree residue, slash and precommercial thinnings, and biomass from wildfire areas. Detailed definitions and EPA’s interpretations of the terms are found in Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Changes to Renewable Fuel Standard Program; Final Rule (EPA, 2010a: pp. 14691-14697). A brief version of EISA’s renewable biomass definition and land restrictions is includes the following:

• Planted crops or crop residues that were cultivated at any time prior to December 19, 2007, on land that is either actively managed or fallow and nonforested.

• Planted trees and tree residue from actively managed tree plantations on non-federal land cleared at any time prior to December 19, 2007, including land belonging to an Indian tribe or an Indian individual, which is held in trust by the United States or subject to a restriction against alienation imposed by the United States.

• Slash and precommercial thinnings from non-federal forestlands, including forestlands belonging to an Indian tribe or an Indian individual, that are held in trust by the United States or subject to a restriction against alienation imposed by the United States.

• Biomass obtained from the immediate vicinity of buildings and other areas regularly occupied by people, or of public infrastructure, at risk from wildfire.

• Algae.

G.2 INFRASTRUCTURE INITIAL INVESTMENT COST

As shown in Chapter 3, the investment cost per gallon of gasoline equivalent (gge) per day to build the fuel infrastructure is sizable for all of the alternate fuel and vehicle pathways. Table G.1 shows this cost in 2030 for each fuel expressed in the cost per gge/day, or in the case of electricity cost per kilowatt-hour per day. The costs shown in Table G.1 reflect only the investment costs that involve building a new form of infrastructure needed to use the fuel as a transportation fuel, not those for expanding an already large and functioning infrastructure associated with its more traditional use.

Electricity. Home charger and public charger costs are included. Expansions of producing, transmitting, and distributing electricity and expansions to produce more of the base fuel are not (natural gas, coal, wind, and solar) are not included. A cost for a parking space for access to charging also is not included.

Hydrogen. Costs to convert the base fuel (natural gas, coal, biomass or electricity) to hydrogen are included, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is included when used, and costs to distribute and to deliver hydrogen to the vehicle are included. Expansions to produce more of the base fuel are not included.

Natural gas. Costs for new natural gas stations to deliver this fuel to a vehicle are included. Expansions of the natural gas producing and transmission system are not included.

GTL. Costs to convert natural gas to gasoline are included. Expansions of the natural gas producing and transmission system and the gasoline station costs are not included.

CTL. Costs to convert coal to gasoline are included. CCS is included. Expansions of the coal producing and delivery system and the gasoline station costs are not included.

Biofuels. Costs to convert biomass to liquid fuels are included. Expansions of the biomass growing, collecting and delivery systems and the gasoline station costs are not.



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