5.5 Comparison to Previous Work

5.6 Adapting Policy to Changes in Technology

5.7 Simulating Uncertainty About the Market’s Response

5.8 Findings

5.9 References

6 POLICIES FOR REDUCING GHG EMISSIONS FROM AND PETROLEUM USE BY LIGHT-DUTY VEHICLES

6.1 Policies Influencing Automotive Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

6.1.1 Land-Use Policy

6.1.2 Transportation Policy

6.1.3 Energy Policy

6.1.4 Environmental Policy

6.1.5 Technology Policy

6.1.6 Decision Making Through the Matrix of Policy Arenas

6.2 Ways to Influence Petroleum Use and GHG Emissions Effects in the LDV Sector

6.3 Policies Aimed at Reducing Vehicle Energy Intensity

6.3.1 Vehicle Energy Efficiency and GHG Emissions Standards

6.3.2 U.S. CAFE Standards

6.3.3 Subsidies for More Fuel-Efficient Vehicles and Fees on Less Fuel-Efficient Vehicles

6.3.4 Motor Fuel Taxes as an Incentive to Purchase More Fuel-Efficient Vehicles

6.3.5 A Price Floor Target for Motor Fuels

6.3.6 Policies to Change the Size and Weight Composition of the LDV Fleet

6.3.7 Assessment of Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement Strategies

6.4 Policies to Reduce Petroleum Use in or GHG Emissions Impacts of Fuel

6.4.1 Tax Incentives for Fuels and Their Infrastructure

6.4.2 Fuel-Related Regulations

6.4.3 Renewable Fuel Standard

6.4.4 Possible Alternative to RFS2

6.4.5 California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard

6.5 Policies to Impact Vehicle Miles Traveled

6.5.1 Historical and Projected Future Growth in LDV VMT

6.5.2 Reducing the Rate of Growth of VMT by Increasing Urban Residential Density

6.5.3 Reducing the Rate of Growth of VMT Through the Use of Pricing Strategies

6.5.4 Reducing the Rate of Growth of VMT Through Other Policies

6.5.5 Summary of the Impact of Policies to Reduce the Rate of Growth of VMT

6.5.6 Policies to Improve the Efficiency of Operation of the LDV Transport Network

6.6 Policies Impacting the Innovation Process

6.6.1 Demonstration

6.6.2 Deployment

6.7 Policies Impacting Public Support

6.8 Adaptive Policies

6.9 References

7 POLICY OPTIONS

7.1 Policies to Encourage the Continued Improvement of the Fuel Efficiency of the Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet

7.2 Policies Targeting Petroleum Use

7.3 Policies to Reduce GHG Emissions Associated with LDV Fuels

7.4 Policies to Reduce the Rate of Growth of VMT

7.5 Policies to Encourage Research and Development, Demonstration, and Deployment

7.5.1 Research and Development

7.5.2 Demonstration

7.5.3 Deployment



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