FUTURE U.S. WORKFORCE FOR

GEOSPATIAL INTELLIGENCE

Committee on the Future U.S. Workforce for Geospatial Intelligence

Board on Earth Sciences and Resources
Division on Earth and Life Studies

Board on Higher Education and Workforce
Policy and Global Affairs

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.

www.nap.edu



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Committee on the Future U.S. Workforce for Geospatial Intelligence Board on Earth Sciences and Resources Division on Earth and Life Studies Board on Higher Education and Workforce Policy and Global Affairs

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS • 500 Fifth Street, NW • Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. HM1582-09-C-0014 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. The views, opinions, and findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official Department of Defense position, policy, or decision unless so designated by other official documentation. International Standard Book Number-13:  978-0-309-26864-6 International Standard Book Number-10:  0-309-26864-8 Cover illustrations: Photo of a battlefield use of sensor input to a mobile display device, courtesy of DARPA (upper left); satellite image of Afghanistan, courtesy of USGS (upper right); Map of Science, courtesy of Richard Klavans, used with permission from SciTech (background map). Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu/. Copyright 2013 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advis- ing the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON THE FUTURE U.S. WORKFORCE FOR GEOSPATIAL INTELLIGENCE KEITH C. CLARKE, Chair, University of California, Santa Barbara LUC E. ANSELIN, Arizona State University, Tempe ALEXANDRE M. BAYEN, University of California, Berkeley GRANT C. BLACK, University of Missouri, St. Louis BARBARA P. BUTTENFIELD, University of Colorado, Boulder KATHLEEN M. CARLEY, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania JOHN R. JENSEN, University of South Carolina, Columbia RICHARD B. LANGLEY, University of New Brunswick, Canada EDWARD M. MIKHAIL, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana SHASHI SHEKHAR, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis MICHAEL N. SOLEM, Association of American Geographers, Washington, D.C. PAULA STEPHAN, Georgia State University, Atlanta MAY YUAN, University of Oklahoma, Norman MICHAEL J. ZYDA, University of Southern California, Los Angeles National Research Council Staff ANNE M. LINN, Study Director, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources GAIL R. GREENFIELD, Senior Program Officer, Board on Higher Education and Workforce ERIC J. EDKIN, Senior Program Assistant, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources v

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BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES CORALE L. BRIERLEY, Chair, Brierley Consultancy LLC, Highlands Ranch, Colorado WILLIAM E. DIETRICH, University of California, Berkeley WILLIAM. L. GRAF, University of South Carolina, Columbia RUSSELL J. HEMLEY, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.C. MURRAY W. HITZMAN, Colorado School of Mines, Golden EDWARD KAVAZANJIAN, Jr., Arizona State University, Tempe DAVID R. MAIDMENT, The University of Texas, Austin ROBERT B. MCMASTER, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis M. MEGHAN MILLER, UNAVCO, Inc., Boulder, Colorado ISABEL P. MONTAÑEZ, University of California, Davis CLAUDIA INÉS MORA, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico BRIJ M. MOUDGIL, University of Florida, Gainesville CLAYTON R. NICHOLS, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (retired), Ocean Park, Washington HENRY N. POLLACK, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor DAVID T. SANDWELL, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla PETER M. SHEARER, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla REGINAL SPILLER, Azimuth Investments LLC, Texas TERRY C. WALLACE, Jr., Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico National Research Council Staff ELIZABETH A. EIDE, Director ANNE M. LINN, Senior Program Officer SAMMANTHA L. MAGSINO, Senior Program Officer MARK D. LANGE, Program Officer JENNIFER T. ESTEP, Financial and Administrative Associate (until August 2012) NICHOLAS D. ROGERS, Financial and Research Associate COURTNEY R. GIBBS, Program Associate JASON R. ORTEGO, Research Associate (until June 2012) ERIC J. EDKIN, Senior Program Assistant CHANDA IJAMES, Senior Program Assistant vi

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BOARD ON HIGHER EDUCATION AND WORKFORCE WILLIAM E. KIRWAN, Chair, University System of Maryland, Adelphi F. KING ALEXANDER, California State University, Long Beach SUSAN K. AVERY, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts JEAN-LOU CHAMEAU, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CARLOS CASTILLO-CHAVEZ, Arizona State University, Tempe RITA COLWELL, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland PETER EWELL, National Center for Higher Education Management Systems, Boulder, Colorado SYLVIA HURTADO, University of California, Los Angeles WILLIAM KELLEY, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia EARL LEWIS, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia PAULA STEPHAN, Georgia State University, Atlanta National Research Council Staff PETER HENDERSON, Director GAIL GREENFIELD, Senior Program Officer SABRINA HALL, Program Associate vii

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Acknowledgments T his report has been reviewed in draft form by Leif E. Peterson, Advanced HR Concepts & individuals chosen for their diverse perspec- S ­ olutions, LLC, Beavercreek, Ohio tives and technical expertise, in accordance Chris Rizos, University of New South Wales, with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Australia Committee. The purpose of this independent review is Scott A. Sandgathe, University of Washington, to provide candid and critical comments that will ­assist Seattle the institution in making its published report as sound Stephen M. Stigler, University of Chicago, Illinois as possible and to ensure that the report meets institu- tional standards for objectivity, evidence, and respon- Although the reviewers listed above have provided siveness to the study charge. The review comments many constructive comments and suggestions, they and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recom- integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank mendations nor did they see the final draft of the report the following individuals for their participation in the before its release. The review of this report was overseen review of this report: by David R. Rain, George Washington University, and Stephen R. Berry, University of Chicago. Appointed by Burt S. Barnow, The George Washington the National Research Council, they were responsible ­University, Washington, D.C. for making certain that an independent examina- Katy Börner, Indiana University, Bloomington tion of this report was carried out in accordance with Gaetano Borriello, University of Washington, insti­ utional procedures and that all review comments t Seattle were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final Cynthia A. Brewer, Pennsylvania State University, content of this report rests entirely with the authoring University Park committee and the institution. Joseph Galaskiewicz, University of Arizona, Tucson The committee would like to thank the following Ayman F. Habib, University of Calgary, Canada individuals who gave briefings or provided data, fig- Michael J. Jackson, University of Nottingham, ures, or other input: Max Baber, Richard Berg, Adam United Kingdom Chill, Denise Clayton Delahanty, David DiBiase, Annette J. Krygiel, Independent Consultant, Michael Gibbons, Leila Gonzales, George Hepner, Great Falls, Virginia Susan Kalweit, Nirmala Kannankutty, Keith Krut, James Llinas, State University of New York at Keith Masback, Patricia Muth, Wendy Nelson, Mark Buffalo Pahls, Jürgen Pfeffer, James Plasker, Mark Regets, Jack Marguerite Madden, University of Georgia, S ­ anders, H. Greg Smith, Marc Spraragen, George Athens Stamus, Ed Waltz, and Michael Wolf. ix

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Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 9 Committee Approach, 10 Overview of the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, 12 Organization of the Report, 14 2 CORE AREAS OF GEOSPATIAL INTELLIGENCE 17 Geodesy and Geophysics, 17 Photogrammetry, 21 Remote Sensing, 25 Cartographic Science, 28 Geographic Information Systems and Geospatial Analysis, 32 3 EMERGING AREAS OF GEOSPATIAL INTELLIGENCE 35 GEOINT Fusion, 35 Crowdsourcing, 38 Human Geography, 42 Visual Analytics, 45 Forecasting, 49 4 AVAILABILITY OF EXPERTS 53 Current Availability of Experts, 53 Reductions in the Talent Pool, 61 Anticipated Availability of Experts, 62 Summary and Conclusions, 65 5 CURRENT AND ANTICIPATED GAPS IN EXPERTISE 67 Domain Knowledge, 67 Skills, 70 Recruiting, 73 Summary and Conclusions, 74 xi

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xii CONTENTS 6 CURRENT TRAINING PROGRAMS 77 Universities, 77 Government, 84 Professional Societies and Nongovernmental Organizations, 85 Industry, 87 Summary and Conclusions, 87 7 BUILDING KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS 89 Building the Core and Emerging Areas, 89 Strengthening Training, 93 Enhancing Recruitment, 94 Summary and Conclusions, 96 REFERENCES 97 APPENDIXES A Example University Programs and Curricula 103 B Job Descriptions of NGA Scientists and Analysts 115 C Data on Instructional Programs and Citizenship 127 D Data on Occupations 159 E Biographical Sketches of Committee Members 165 F Acronyms and Abbreviations 171