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Appendix A Example University Programs and Curricula A n overview of the academic courses and skills • number of students graduated in the academic needed for the 10 core and emerging areas and skill areas sought by NGA, is given in Chapters 2 and 3, and example • caliber of instructors, and academic programs in these areas are described in • a curricular focus that allows the types of prob- Chapter 6. This appendix provides supporting informa- lem solving and analysis needed by NGA. tion, including example university programs associated with Chapters 2 and 3 (Tables A.1–A.10) and example For the university programs in the core areas, the university curricula for degree and certificate programs committee used its expert judgment to choose 10 to discussed in Chapter 6 (Tables A.11–A.15). The com- 15 examples from a longer list of qualified programs. mittee selected the example programs and curricula For the university programs in emerging areas, where based on the following criteria: university degree programs do not exist, the committee chose 5 to 10 programs that offer reasonably compre- • longevity of the program, hensive coursework and relevant skills. • critical mass of instructors, 103

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104 APPENDIX A UNIVERSITY PROGRAMS IN CORE AND EMERGING AREAS Example Programs in Core Areas TABLE A.1  Example University Programs in Geodesy and Geophysics University Department Concentration/Track Degree Geodesy California State University, Fresno Civil and Geomatics Engineering Geomatics engineering B.S. Ferris State University College of Engineering Technology Surveying engineering B.S. Florida Atlantic University Civil, Environmental and Geomatics Geomatics engineering B.S. Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences Geodesy M.S., Ph.D. Ohio State University Civil, Environmental, and Geodetic Geospatial and geodetic engineering; M.S., Ph.D. Engineering; and Division of Geodetic geodetic science Science Oregon Institute of Technology Geomatics Surveying B.S. Pennsylvania State University College of Engineering Surveying engineering B.S. Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi School of Engineering and Computing Geomatics B.S., M.S. Sciences University of Alaska, Anchorage Geomatics Geomatics B.S. University of Colorado, Boulder Aerospace Engineering Sciences Geodesy M.S., Ph.D. University of Florida School of Forest Resources and Geomatics B.S., M.S., Ph.D. Conservation University of Maine School of Engineering Technology Surveying Engineering Technology B.S. University of Texas, Austin Center for Space Research Geodesy M.S., Ph.D. Geophysics California Institute of Technology Division of Geological and Planetary Geophysics B.S., M.S., Ph.D. Sciences Columbia University Earth and Environmental Sciences Geoscience B.S., Ph.D. Harvard University Earth and Planetary Sciences Geophysics B.A., Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences Geoscience B.S., M.S., Ph.D., D.Sc. Princeton University Geosciences Geophysics B.A., Ph.D. Stanford University Geophysics Geophysics B.S., M.S., Ph.D. University of California, Berkeley Earth and Planetary Science Geophysics B.S., M.A., Ph.D. University of California, Santa Cruz Earth and Planetary Sciences Geophysics B.S., M.S., Ph.D. University of Southern California Earth Sciences Geophysics B.S., M.S., Ph.D. University of Texas, Austin Institute for Geophysics Geophysics M.S., Ph.D. University of Washington Earth and Space Sciences Geophysics B.S., M.S., Ph.D. Approximate number of schools: 20 for geodesy and 60 for geophysics.

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APPENDIX A 105 TABLE A.2  University Programs Offering Some Photogrammetry University Department Concentration/Track Degree Ohio State University Geodetic Science Photogrammetry M.S., Ph.D. Purdue University Geomatics Engineering Photogrammetry M.S., Ph.D. University of Florida Geomatics Geomatics, Photogrammetry B.S., M.S., Ph.D.a Ferris State University School of CEEMS Surveying Engineering B.S.b California State University, Fresno Civil and Geomatics Engineering Geomatics Engineering, B.S., M.S.a Photogrammetry California State Polytechnic University, Civil Engineering Geospatial Engineering B.S.b Pomona New Mexico State University Engineering Technology and Surveying Surveying Engineering B.S.b Engineering Oregon Institute of Technology Geomatics Geomatics B.S.b Texas A & M University, Corpus Geographic Information Science and Geomatics, Geospatial Surveying B.S., M.S.b Christie Geospatial Surveying Engineering Pennsylvania State University, Surveying Engineering Surveying Engineering B.S.b Wilkes-Barre University of Alaska, Anchorage Geomatics Geomatics B.S.b George Mason University Geography and Geoinformation Science Geography, Geoinformation Science M.S., Ph.D.c East Tennessee State University Surveying and Mapping GIS and Photogrammetry B.S.b Approximate number of schools: 15. a B.S. includes some courses in photogrammetry; graduate degree has a concentration in photogrammetry. b Includes some courses in photogrammetry. c One introductory course in photogrammetry taught by a non-faculty member (from industry). TABLE A.3  Example Universities with a Remote Sensing-Related Track or Degree University Department Concentration/Track Degree Air Force Institute of Technology Engineering Physics Engineering M.S., Ph.D. Boston University Geography Remote sensing B.A., M.A., Ph.D. Clark University Geography Remote sensing B.A., M.A., Ph.D. George Mason University Geography and GeoInformation Science Remote sensing B.A., MS, Ph.D. Naval Post Graduate School Information Science Engineering M.S., Ph.D. Pennsylvania State University Geography Remote sensing B.S., M.S., Ph.D. Rochester Institute of Technology Center for Imaging Science Remote sensing B.S., M.S., Ph.D. University of California, Santa Barbara Geography Remote sensing B.A., M.A., Ph.D. University of Colorado, Boulder Geography Remote sensing B.A., M.A., Ph.D. University of Maryland Geography Remote sensing B.S., M.A., Ph.D. University of Michigan Geoscience and Remote Sensing Engineering B.S., M.S., Ph.D. University of South Carolina Geography Remote sensing B.A., M.S., Ph.D. University of Utah Geography Remote sensing B.S., M.S., Ph.D. University of New Hampshire Forestry Remote sensing B.A., M.S., Ph.D. University of Montana Ecosystem and Conservation Science Remote sensing B.S., M.S., Ph.D. University of Georgia Geography Remote sensing B.A., M.A., Ph.D. Approximate number of schools: 63.

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106 APPENDIX A TABLE A.4  Example Universities with a Cartography Track or Degree University Department Concentration/Track Degree University of Arkansas Geosciences Cartography/remote sensing B.A., M.A. University of Colorado, Boulder Geography GIS and cartography B.A., M.A., Ph.D. Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville Geography GIS and cartography B.A., M.S. Salem State College Geography Cartography and GIS B.S., M.S. Frostburg State University Geography Mapping sciences B.S. University of Nebraska, Lincoln Geography GIS, cartography, and remote sensing M.S. State University of New York, Binghamton Geography Cartography and GIS M.A. Kent State University Geography GIS and cartography B.A. minor East Central University Cartography and Geography Geotechniques B.S. Indiana University of Pennsylvania Geography and Regional Planning GIS cartographer B.A., M.S. George Mason University Geography and GeoInformation Science Geographic and cartographic sciences M.S. University of Washington Geography GIS mapping and society B.A. University of Wisconsin, Madison Geography Cartography and geographic B.S., M.S. information science University of Wisconsin, River Falls Geography and Mapping Sciences GIS and cartography B.A. minor Approximate number of schools: 35. TABLE A.5  Example Universities with Degree Tracks in GIS and Geographic Information Science University Department Concentration/Track Degree Arizona State University School of Geographical Sciences and Urban GIS-Spatial Analysis M.A. Planning Clark University International, Development, Community Geographic Information Science for M.A. and Environment; and School of Development and Environment Geography Pennsylvania State University Geography; and John A. Dutton GIS M. e-Education Institute University of California, Santa Barbara Geography Modeling, measurement, and M.A., M.S. computation University of Colorado, Boulder Geography GIS M.A. University of Minnesota Geography GIS M. University of Pennsylvania School of Design Urban spatial analytics M. University of Redlands GIS GIS M.S. University of South Carolina Geography Geographic information science M.A., M.S. University of Southern California Dana and David Dornsife College of Geographic information science and M. Letters, Arts and Sciences technology University of Washington Professional and Continuing Education GIS Prof. M. State University of New York, Buffalo Geography Geographic information systems and M.A., M.S. science Approximate number of schools: 189 degree programs in GIS and more than 400 community colleges and technical schools that offer some form of training in geospatial technologies. See .

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APPENDIX A 107 Example Programs in Emerging Areas TABLE A.6  Example Universities with Courses Relevant to GEOINT Fusion University Department or Research Unit Concentration/Track Academic Structure University of Southern California Computer Science Database interoperability Graduate Georgia Institute of Technology Electrical Engineering Multisensor data fusion Graduate University of California, Santa Barbara Geography Geographic information science: Undergraduate Map conflation Purdue University Civil Engineering Geomatics: Image fusion Undergraduate Johns Hopkins University Computer Science Semantic web Graduate Pennsylvania State University Information Science and Technology Multisensor data fusion Graduate State University of New York, Buffalo Industrial and Systems Engineering Multisource information fusion Graduate Approximate number of schools: 12 offering courses covering some aspects of data fusion. TABLE A.7  Example Universities with Courses Relevant to Crowdsourcing University Department or Research Unit Concentration/Track Academic Structure University of California, Los Angeles Center for Embedded Networks Systems Participatory sensing Graduate University of California, Berkeley Algorithms, Machines, and People Lab Large-scale data analytics Graduate Massachusetts Institute of Technology Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Systems for crowdsourcing Graduate Laboratory Rutgers University Wireless Information Networks Laboratory Privacy, security Graduate University of Pennsylvania General Robotics, Automation, Sensing and Sensor networks Graduate Perception Laboratory Approximate number of schools: fewer than 10. TABLE A.8  Example Universities with Courses Relevant to Human Geography University Department or Research Unit Concentration/Track Academic Structure Carnegie Mellon University Institute for Software Research Computation, organizations, and Graduate society University of California, Irvine Sociology Social networks Undergraduate, graduate Duke University Sociology Social networks Undergraduate, graduate University of Arizona Sociology Social networks Undergraduate, graduate Approximate number of schools: fewer than 10.

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108 APPENDIX A TABLE A.9  Example Universities with Courses Relevant to Visual Analytics University Department or Research Unit Concentration/Track Academic Structure Purdue University Visual Analytics for Command, Control, Visualization, data sciences Graduate and Interoperability Environments University of North Carolina, Charlotte Charlotte Visualization Center Graphics, visualization Undergraduate, graduate Georgia Institute of Technology Graphics, Visualization, and Usability Computer graphics, visualization, Undergraduate, Center human-computer interface graduate University of Washington Pacific Rim Visualization and Analytics Visual analytic systems Undergraduate, Center graduate University of Massachusetts, Lowell Institute for Visualization and Perception Visualization technologies, visual Undergraduate, Research analytics graduate Stanford University Stanford Visualization Group Data analysis, visualization Graduate University of California, Santa Barbara Media Arts and Technology Media arts and technology Graduate Approximate number of schools: 15. TABLE A.10  Example Universities with Courses Relevant to Forecasting University Department or Research Unit Concentration/Track Academic Structure University of Oklahoma School of Meteorology Weather forecasting Undergraduate, graduate University of Washington Atmospheric Sciences Weather forecasting Undergraduate, graduate Arizona State University School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Spatial statistics, spatial modeling, Undergraduate, Planning and econometrics graduate Ohio State University Statistics Spatial statistics, spatial modeling, Undergraduate, and econometrics graduate University of Texas, Dallas School of Economic, Political, and Policy Spatial statistics, spatial modeling, Undergraduate, Sciences and econometrics graduate Pennsylvania State University Geography Spatial statistics, spatial modeling, Undergraduate, and econometrics graduate Carnegie Mellon University Institute for Software Research Agent-based modeling Undergraduate, graduate George Mason University Computer Science Agent-based modeling Undergraduate, graduate University of Michigan Center for the Study of Complex Systems Agent-based modeling Undergraduate, graduate Massachusetts Institute of Technology Mechanical Engineering Complex systems and economics Undergraduate, graduate Northwestern University Institute on Complex Systems Complex systems and economics Undergraduate, graduate Harvard University Economics Economics Undergraduate, graduate Princeton University Economics Economics Undergraduate, graduate University of Chicago Economics Economics Undergraduate, graduate Approximate number of schools: more than 100. Most large universities offer courses in economics, computer science, mathematics, statistics, and social sciences that have analytical and modeling components relevant to prediction and forecasting.

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APPENDIX A 109 EXAMPLE CURRICULA TABLE A.11  Coursework for an Undergraduate Degree in Geographic Information Science at the University of Colorado Coursea Title Description Two or three of the following (8-12 credits) GEOG 2053 Mapping a changing world Overviews the vital role cartography plays in modern society and contemporary science. (4 credits) Fundamentals of reading and creating maps for research and enjoyment GEOG 3023 Statistics for earth sciences Introduces parametric and distribution-free statistics, emphasizes applications to earth science (4 credits) problems. Not open to students who have taken a college-level statistics course. Restricted to junior and senior geography, geology, and environmental studies majors GEOG 3053 Cartography 1: Visualization and Fundamentals of cartography—the science and art of map design. Restricted to junior and senior (4 credits) information design geography and environmental studies majors. Recommended GEOG 3023 (may be taken concurrently) All of the following (9 credits) GEOG 4023 Introduction to quantitative Introduces fundamental statistical and quantitative modeling techniques widely used in geography (3 credits)b methods in human geography today. Emphasizes geographic examples and spatial problems, using statistical routines now available on most computers. Prereq GEOG 3023 or equivalent GEOG 4033 Quantitative methods in Introduces the use of personal computers and statistical software in geographical analysis. (2 credits)b geography laboratory Corequisite GEOG 4023 GEOG 4103 Introduction to geographic Use of tools and databases specifically designed for spatial data. Covers data management and (4 credits) information science procedures for transforming, storing/retrieving, and analyzing geographic data. Restricted to junior and senior geography and environmental studies majors. Prerequisites GEOG 3023 and GEOG 3053 One to four of the following (4-16 credits) GEOG 4043 Cartography 2: Interactive and Interactive, multimedia, animated, and Web-based cartography stressing the important role digital (4 credits) multimedia mapping cartography plays in cyberspace. Focuses on principles of effective cartographic design in multimedia and hypertext environments. Prerequisite GEOG 3053 GEOG 4093 Remote sensing of the Acquisition and interpretation of environmental data by remote sensing. Topics include theory (4 credits) environment and sensors as well as manual and computerized interpretation methods. Stresses infrared and microwave portions of the spectrum GEOG 4110 Advanced remote sensing Extends basic concepts and skills of image processing and physics of remote sensors, with deeper (4 credits) examination of image analysis techniques for extracting the maximum amount of information. Prerequisite GEOG 4093 GEOG 4203 Geographic information science: Develops GIS models for human and environmental applications, grid and vector data models, (4 credits) Modeling applications tesselated and hierarchical data structures, terrain representation, linear and areal interpolation and kriging. Students work in small group to design, implement, and run GIS models. Prerequisite GEOG 4103/5103, GEOG 3023 (or equivalent) or instructor consent GEOG 4303 Geographic information science: Introduces the use of Python programming to undertake advanced spatial analysis tasks within a (4 credits) Programming GIS environment. Prerequisite GEOG 4103/5103, GEOG 3023 (or equivalent) or instructor consent GEOG 4xxx Spatial statistics (under Involves the quantitative analysis of spatial data and statistical modeling of spatial variability and (4 credits) development) uncertainty. Topics may include point pattern analysis, model-based geostatistics, semivariogram analysis, validation methods and simulation GEOG 5113 Advanced spatial topics in GIS Graduate seminar; topics vary (4 credits) SOURCE: . a All 4-credit courses require 45 hours in lecture and 30–45 hours in laboratory. b GEOG 4023 and 4033 must be taken concurrently and together require 45 hours in lecture and 45 hours in laboratory.

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110 APPENDIX A TABLE A.12  Coursework for a Master’s Degree in Geographic and Cartographic Sciences at George Mason University Course Title Description Required courses (12 credits)a GGS 553 Geographic Information System Sources of digital geospatial data; and methods of input, storage, display, and processing of spatial (3 credits) data for geographic analysis using GIS. Lectures, hands-on exercises familiarize students with current technology GGS 579 Remote sensing Examines use of various types and combinations of electromagnetic energy to obtain spatial (3 credits) information. Concentrates on nonphotographic and spaceborne remote sensing platforms and sensors. Examines essential operational parameters for existing and future systems and strategies for visual extraction of features GGS 560 Quantitative methods Survey of quantitative methods commonly used in geographic research. Emphasizes spatial analysis (3 credits) techniques GGS 689 Seminar in geographic thought Includes historical development of geographic thought and current philosophy of geography; (3 credits) and methodology rationale for various subfields; and geographic research techniques and methods of analysis Electives (21-24 credits)b GGS 503 Problems in environmental Case studies of effects of human activities on atmospheric, hydrologic, geomorphic, and biotic (3 credits) management processes GGS 505 Transportation geography Structure, principles, location, and development of world transportation. Critical role of (3 credits) transportation in moving people, goods, and ideas at international, national, regional, and urban levels GGS 525 Economics of human/ Advanced topics in environmental, natural resource, and ecological economics for noneconomist. (3 credits) environmental interactions Emphasizes sustainability, intergenerational equity, and economic-ecological feedbacks GGS 531 Land-use modeling techniques Survey of literature on spatially explicit empirical models of land-use change. Hands-on experience (3 credits) and applications developing and running simple models. Techniques covered include statistical models, mathematical programming models, cellular automata, agent-based models, and integrated models GGS 533 Issues in regional geography Geographical study of particular region or relevant regional issue (1-6 credits) GGS 540 Medical geography Spatial approaches to study of health and disease. Topics include disease ecology and diffusion, and (3 credits) geographic perspectives on improving health care delivery GGS 551 Thematic cartography Analyzes nature of perceptual organization and visual systems in thematic map communication (3 credits) portrayal, graphic handling, and data analysis GGS 554 History of cartography History of cartographic portrayal of Earth from ancient times through 19th century, emphasizing (3 credits) interrelation of human culture, technological development, and geographical knowledge as reflected in maps GGS 562 Photogrammetry Treatment of photogrammetric problems, including least-squares adjustments, image coordination (3 credits) refinements, colinearity equation, resection, relative orientation, and analytic aerotriangulation GGS 563 Advanced Geographic Discusses advanced GIS concepts including spatial data structure, spatial analysis, programming (3 credits) Information Systems data fusion, Internet components, and spatial database management. Hands-on activities demonstrate concepts and specific applications in both cultural and physical geography GGS 579 Digital remote sensing Examines use of various types and combinations of electromagnetic energy to obtain spatial (3 credits) information. Concentrates on nonphotographic and spaceborne remote sensing platforms and sensors. Examines essential operational parameters for existing and future systems and strategies for visual extraction of features GGS 581 World food and population Topics include maldistribution of population, regional disparities in growth rates and income (3 credits) distribution, food production, and world hunger. Discusses population policies, with emphasis on Third World countries GGS 590 Geography of insurgency Special topics seminar which analyzes topics of immediate interest in political unrest and (1-3 credits) insurgency GGS 590 Political geography Special topics seminar which analyzes topics of immediate interest in political policies and political (1-3 credits) behavior GGS 590 GIS for business Special topics seminar which analyzes topics of immediate interest in business related applications (1-3 credits) of GIS such as enterprise GIS, GIS for real estate, location analysis and marketing GGS 590 GIS for the environment Special topics seminar which analyzes topics of immediate interest in GIS and environmental (1-3 credits) modeling, conservation, and sustainability GGS 605 Socioeconomic applications of Provides those working with spatially referenced data the technical skills to use GIS to conduct spatial (3 credits) GIS analyses on socioeconomic phenomena related to labor, retail, and real estate markets. Introduces and emphasizes the development of technical and methodological skills to understand the potential and the pitfalls of using GIS for spatial analyses of socioeconomic phenomena GGS 631 Spatial agent-based models Discusses key challenges in spatial modeling of human-environment interactions. Reviews agent- (3 credits) of human environment based modeling applications in urban and rural interactions, agriculture, forestry, and other areas. interactions Hands-on development of simple agent-based models and investigation of linkages between GIS and agent-based models continued

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APPENDIX A 111 TABLE A.12 Continued Course Title Description GGS 650 Introduction to GIS Introduction to programming methods and their application to Geographic Information Systems, (3 credits) programming including the fundamentals of object-oriented programming and GIS-specific data structures and algorithms. Employs an object-oriented language such as Visual Basic.Net, and existing freeware and commercial GIS libraries. Topics covered include variables, arrays, control structures, objects and classes, raster and vector data structures, spatial algorithms, and spatial indexing methods GGS 653 Geographic information analysis Explores existing and potential capabilities of geographic information systems in conducting spatial (3 credits) analysis and modeling GGS 655 Map design Advanced examination of principles of map design, including discussions of map design research (3 credits) GGS 656 The hydrosphere Covers components and transfer processes in hydrosphere, which consists of aqueous envelope (3 credits) of Earth including oceans, lakes, rivers, snow, ice, glaciers, soil moisture, groundwater, and atmospheric water vapor GGS 658 Terrain mapping Covers fundamental methods of digitally representing terrain data, major technologies, and (3 credits) programs for generating terrain data; methods for quantifying terrain error and assessing terrain data quality; and a variety of applications GGS 661 Map projections and coordinate Covers development of various map projections and coordinate systems, property analysis, (3 credits) systems distortions, and applications GGS 664 Spatial data structures Studies spatial data structures and their application in digital cartography, geographic information (3 credits) systems, and image-processing systems. Examines raster and vector data structures, and attribution schemes and topological models. Includes data transformation, information loss, data quality, and the role of metadata SOURCE: . a 3 semester credits translates to 45 hours in class. b 18 credits of electives plus 3-6 credits GSS 799 Thesis Writing for the thesis option, and 24 credits of electives for the nonthesis option.

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112 APPENDIX A TABLE A.13  Coursework for an Online Master’s Degree in GIS at Penn State World Campus Coursea Title Description Required courses (23-26 credits) GEOG 482 The nature of geographic Orientation to the properties of geographic data and the practice of distance learning (2 credits) information GEOG 483 Problem solving with GIS How geographic information systems facilitate data analysis and communication to address (3 credits) common geographic problems GEOG 484 GIS database development Database design, creation, and maintenance, and data integration using desktop GIS software (3 credits) GEOG 583 Geospatial system analysis and Systematic approach to requirements acquisition, specification, design and implementation of (3 credits) design geospatial information systems GEOG 584 Geospatial technology project Principles of effective project management applied to the design and implementation of geospatial (3 credits) management information systems GEOG 586 Geographical information Choosing and applying analytical methods for geospatial data, including point pattern analysis, (3 credits) analysis interpolation, surface analysis, overlay analysis, and spatial autocorrelation GEOG 596A Individual studies—Peer review Preparation and presentation of a proposal for an individual capstone project (3-9 credits) GEOG 596B Individual studies—Capstone Preparation and delivery of a formal professional presentation of the results of an individual (3-9 credits) project capstone project Electives (minimum 9 credits) GEOG 485 GIS programming and Customizing GIS software to extend its built-in functionality and to automate repetitive tasks (3 credits) customization GEOG 486 Cartography and visualization Theory and practice of cartographic design, emphasizing effective visual thinking and visual (3 credits) communication with geographic information systems GEOG 487 Environmental applications of Simulated internship experience in which students play the role of GIS analysts in an (3 credits) GIS environmental consultancy GEOG 488 Acquiring and integrating Advanced technical, legal, ethical, and institutional problems related to data acquisition for (3 credits) geospatial data geospatial information systems GEOG 489 GIS application development Advanced topics in GIS customization, including the Systems Development Life Cycle, packaging (3 credits) and deployment, and consuming Web services GEOG 497D Lidar technology and Understanding lidar systems; design, operation, data processing techniques, and product generation (3 credits) applications to address typical application scenarios faced by the geospatial professional GEOG 587 Conservation GIS Conservation GIS applies geospatial problem solving to ecological research and resource (3 credits) management issues to enhance conservation planning GEOG 588 Planning GIS for emergency Requirements analysis and proposal writing to plan and implement GIS solutions supporting (3 credits) management emergency management activities of government agencies and contractors GEOG 597K GIS for analysis of health The role of geographic information systems in understanding disease, including relevant spatial (3 credits) analysis and cartographic visualization techniques GEOG 861 Map projections for geospatial Cultivates a working knowledge of map projections that professionals need to process geospatial (1 credit) professionals data effectively for mapping and analysis GEOG 862 or GPS and GNSS for geospatial Cultivates a working knowledge of current and future capabilities of GPS and the emerging Global GEOG 497I professionals Navigation Satellite System (3 credits) GEOG 863 or GIS mashups for geospatial Cultivates a working knowledge of how and why geospatial professionals develop web mapping GEOG 497J professionals applications that combine data from multiple sources (3 credits) GEOG 864 or Professionalism in GIS&T Prepares current and aspiring professionals to recognize, analyze, and address ethical problems in GEOG 598E the geographic information science and technology field (2 credits) GEOG 897G Trends in geospatial technology Developing lifelong learning skills to take advantage of the changing tools of geospatial technology (3 credits) STAT 480 Introduction to SAS Introduction to SAS with emphasis on reading, manipulating, and summarizing data (1 credit) STAT 505b Applied multivariate statistical Analysis of multivariate data; T-squared tests; partial correlation; discrimination; MANOVA; cluster (3 credits) analysis analysis; regression; growth curves; factor analysis; principal components; canonical correlations SOURCE: . a The M.S. degree requires 35 credits and is expected to take 3 years full time to complete. b Elective for a master’s degree in GIS only.

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APPENDIX A 113 CERTIFICATES TABLE A.14  Selected Institutions That Offer Cartography, GIS, and Remote Sensing-Related Certificates Institution, Department Certificate Title Course Requirements California State University, East Bay, Geography Certificate in Cartography and GIS 20 hours George Mason University, Geography and GeoInformation Graduate Certificate in Remote Sensing 15 hours Science Georgia Tech, School of Earth and Atmosphere Certificate Program in Remote Sensing 12 hours Humbolt State, Forestry and Wildland Resources Certificate in GIS and Remote Sensing 5 courses Institute of Geoinformatics and Remote Sensing Post Graduate Certificate in GIS and Remote Sensing 6 months; 150 hours University of Twente, International Institute for Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Certificate 6 weeks Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation Remote Sensing and GIS Geology Exploration Certificate 9 weeks Principles of Remote Sensing Certificate 9 weeks Oregon State University, College of Forestry GIScience Certificate with Emphasis in Remote Sensing 19 hours Symbosis Institute of Geoinformatics Certificate Course in Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 2 months Mississippi State University, Division of Academic Geospatial and Remote Sensing Technology Certificate 15 hours Outreach Naval Postgraduate School Space Systems Certificate 4 courses Northeastern University, Professional Studies Graduate Certificate in Remote Sensing 6 courses Rutgers University, Geography Geospatial Information Science Certificate 12 hours San Jose State University, Geography Certificate in GIScience with Specialization in Remote Sensing 18 hours West Virginia University, Geography Certificate in GIS and Remote Sensing 15 hours University of Colorado, Boulder, Aerospace Engineering Remote Sensing Certificate 4 courses University of California, Davis, Center for Spatial Base, Intermediate, and Advanced Certificates in Remote Sensing not available Technologies and Remote Sensing University of Maryland, Professional Studies Graduate Certificate in GIS 12 hours University of Michigan, Dearborn, Natural Sciences Certificate in GIS and Remote Sensing 16 hours University of Mississippi, School of Law Certificate in Remote Sensing, Air, and Space Law 27 hours University of New Orleans, Geography Remote Sensing and GIS Certification 4 courses University of Omaha, Geography Graduate GIScience Certificate 17 hours University of Texas, Dallas, Economic Policy Graduate Certificate in Remote Sensing 15 hours Graduate Certificate in Geospatial Intelligence 15 hours University of Texas, Arlington, Geology Certification in Remote Sensing, GPS and GIS 15 hours University of Utah, Geography Certificate in GIS with Emphasis in Remote Sensing 22 hours St. Louis University, Environmental Sciences Graduate Certificate in Advances in Remote Sensing and GIS 15 hours Texas A&M University, Geography Remote Sensing Certification 4 courses; 12 hours York University GIS and Remote Sensing Certificate not available Webster University, Business and Technology Graduate Certificate in Remote Sensing Analysis and GIS 18 hours SOURCES: Association of American Geographers, Environmental Systems Research Institute, and the Urban and Regional Science Association. TABLE A.15  Course Requirements for a Certificate in GIS with an Emphasis in Remote Sensing at the Department of Geography, University of Utah Course Number Title Hours in Classa GEOG 3020 Geographical analysis 45 GEOG 3110 The Earth from space: Remote sensing of the environment 45 GEOG 3140 Introduction to Geographic Information Systems 45 GEOG 5110 Environmental analysis through remote sensing 45 GEOG 5120 Environmental optics 45 GEOG 5130 Advanced remote sensing applications 45 One of the following: CS 1000 Engineering computing 45 CS 1020 Introduction to programming in C++ 45 CS 1021 Introduction to programming in Java 45 CS 1410 Introduction to computer science I 60 CS 2000 Introduction to program design in C 60 Total hours in class 315 or 330 SOURCE: . a 3 semester credit hours = 45 hours in class.

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