BOX 1.2
Core and Emerging Areas Considered in This Report

Geodesy and geophysics

•   Geodesy—the science of mathematically determining the size, shape, and orientation of the Earth, and the natu re of its gravity field in four dimensions. It includes the development of highly precise positioning techniques, which enable monitoring of dynamic Earth phenomena such as ground subsidence and sea-level change. Related terms include surveying and navigation

•   Geophysics—the physics of the Earth and its environment in space, including the study of geodesy, geomag net1sm and paleomagnetism, seismology, hydrology, space physics and aeronomy, tectonophysics, and atmospheric science

Photogrammetry—the art, science, and technology of extracting reliable and accurate information about objects, phenomena, and environments from the processing of acquired imagery and other sensed data, both passively and actively, within a wide range of the electromagnetic energy spectrum.

Remote sensing—the scienoe of measuring some property of an object or phenomenon by a sensor that is not in physical contact with the object or phenomenon under study.

Cartographic science—the discipline dealing with the conoeption, production, dissemination, and study of maps as both tangible and digital objects, and with their use and analysis

Geographic Information Systems and geospatial analysis

•   Geographic Information System—any system that captures, stores, analyzes, manages, and VISualizes data that are linked to locati on.

•   Geospatial analysis—the process of applying analytical techniques to geographically referenced data sets to extract or generate new geographical information or insight

Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT) fusion—the aggregation, integration, and conflation of geospatial data across time and space with the goal of removing the effects of data measurement systems and facilitating spatial analysis and synthesis across information sources

Crowdsourcing—a process in which individuals gather and analyze information and complete tasks over the Internet, often using mobile devices such as cellular phones. Individuals with these devices form Interactive, scalable sensor networks that enable professionals and the public to gather, analyze, share, and visualize local knowledge and observations and to collaborate on the design, assessment, and testing of devices and results. Related terms include volunteered geographic information, community remote sensing, and collective intelligence.

Human geography—the sc1ence of understanding, representing, and forecasting activities of ind ividuals, groups, organizations, and the social networks to which they belong within a geotemporal context. It includes the creation of operational technologies based on societal, cultural, religious, tribal, historical, and linguistic knowledge, local economy and infrastructure; and knowledge about evolving th reats within that geotemporal window Related terms include cultural geography, spatial cultural intelligence, geo-enabled network analysis, and human terrain.

Visual analytics—the science of analytic reasoning, facilitated by interactive visual interfaces. The techn iques are used to synthesize information and derive insight from massive, dynamic, ambiguous, and often conflicting data. Related terms include scientific visualization, Information visualization, geovisuallzation, and visual reasoning.

Forecasting—an operational research technique used to anticipate outcomes, trends, or expected future behav1or of a system using statistics and modeling. It is used as a basis for planning and decision making and is stated in less certain terms than a prediction Related terms include prediction and anticipatory intelligence.

would continue at the current pace but would focus on the core and emerging areas. To estimate how many experts would likely be available in the future, the committee extrapolated the trend in the number of degrees conferred over the past 10 years to 2030.

The last two tasks address mechanisms for building knowledge and skills in the geospatial disciplines now and over the next 20 years. For Task 3, the committee described current government agency, university, professional society, and private company programs that

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