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Appendix B Job Descriptions of NGA Scientists and Analysts B elow are descriptions of NGA’s science and geo- and techniques such as geographic information systems spatial intelligence (GEOINT) positions and (GIS), quantitative methods and data visualization, educational requirements (Table B.1) provided modeling, systems analysis, comparative analysis, and by NGA. database development. They provide technical input into the development, evaluation, use, and deployment GEOINT Analyst (Aeronautical)—acquire, analyze, of solutions and improvements to optimize GEOINT and evaluate source and imagery in order to produce analysis and production. They also educate manage- aeronautical products and mission-specific data in ment and analysts in quantitative methods as they apply support of safety of navigation and national security to GEOINT analysis. requirements. They ensure the quality, accuracy, and currency of aeronautical information produced in- GEOINT Analyst (Bathymetry)—receive, analyze, house, by contractors, and by national and international and deconflict U.S. and foreign bathymetric data (both co-producers. They ensure the quality of aeronautical digital and analog) for use by the intelligence commu- databases and products in accordance with ISO 9001 nity and external customers. They populate and main- certification requirements. tain data and metadata in the bathymetry database, ensuring the accuracy of metadata pertaining to col- GEOINT Analyst (Aeronautical Intelligence)— lection source platforms and depth recording devices. analyze and exploit worldwide aeronautical source and imagery in support of safety of navigation and national GEOINT Analyst (Cartography)—acquire, analyze, intelligence goals and requirements. They collaborate compile, evaluate, and review geospatial data for use in with partners and co-producers across the Department standard products, nonstandard products, and/or data of Defense and the intelligence community to ensure holdings in support of mission requirements. They at- that current navigation and intelligence information tribute, exploit, extract, format, manipulate, position, is available in databases and products. These analysts and symbolize geospatial information. They ensure the apply international certification standards to ensure quality, accuracy, and currency of geospatial informa- the quality, accuracy, and currency of products and tion produced in-house or in cooperation with con­ information. tractors and national and international co-producers for national, military, and civil partners. GEOINT Analyst (Analytic Methodologist)—apply mathematical techniques for spatiotemporal analysis GEOINT Analyst (Foundation Strategies)—­ to solve complex military and intelligence problems collaborate with customers and source providers to in support of national security. They use analytic tools manage tasking, collection, dissemination, and report- 115

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116 APPENDIX B ing related functions. They utilize unique systems measure fluctuations and accelerations in the Earth’s and processes to support all mapping, charting, and magnetic and gravity fields. They serve as NGA’s geodesy global programs and products and opera- primary ground-based data collectors and use and tional and strategic requirements. They develop and maintain a variety of geodetic and geophysical survey coordinate tailored strategies within the intelligence equipment to support data acquisition. They compute, community, create and adjudicate tasking and dis- adjust, and evaluate geodetic survey data acquired by semination requirements for diverse customers, analyze other organizations. They provide technical expertise and investigate collection performance for mapping, on geodetic and geophysical issues to customers and charting, and geodesy-specific data from commercial, represent NGA in external community forums that national technical means, and other sources, and ad- establish Department of Defense and intelligence com- vise customers in support of the National System for munity doctrine and policy. Geospatial-Intelligence. GEOINT Analyst (Geospatial Analysis)—produce GEOINT Analyst (Geodetic Earth Sciences)—­ intelligence products using geospatial methodologies analyze the Earth’s gravity and magnetic fields, geo- and spatiotemporal data derived from imagery, intel- physical structure, material properties, and dynamics ligence databases, and other sources in support of for geospatial intelligence and Department of Defense ­national security. They are intelligence analysts who use applications. They define and maintain the World their understanding of geographic information science G ­ eodetic System (WGS), perform datum transforma- and technology, spatial thinking, remote sensing, GIS, tions between WGS 84 and local datums, and develop intelligence issues, and the social and physical sciences spatial and temporal models defining Earth systems. to create information, characterize events, and discover They provide in-depth technical expertise on geodetic relationships and trends. They produce descriptive and and geophysical issues to internal and external cus­ predictive analyses and communicate findings as writ- tomers and represent NGA in external community ten, visual, and/or oral geospatial intelligence. forums establishing Department of Defense and intel- ligence community doctrine and policy. GEOINT Analyst (Geospatial Data Stewardship)— manage the generation, approval, and population of GEOINT Analyst (Geodetic Orbit Sciences)—­ data within NGA’s geospatial databases, ensuring that apply orbital mechanics and network systems analysis they can be used to satisfy customer requirements. to acquire, process, and analyze satellite data. They ­ They have read/write access to relevant databases, develop, evaluate, and use algorithms and tools to and make qualitative decisions about the data. They provide integrity monitoring and determine precise understand the capabilities and limitations of relevant ephemerides and other information. They analyze database systems. They have a wide range of product/ satellite ranging and timing information in order to data knowledge and understand the capabilities of the identify anomalies in both real-time and post-fit sce- relevant systems to support the extraction, analysis, and narios. These analysts handle technical and logistical finishing of in-house, co-production, commodity, and details pertinent to remote command and control of a contract data. worldwide network of satellite tracking stations. They provide in-depth technical expertise on satellite issues GEOINT Analyst (Imagery Intelligence)—task and to internal and external customers, and represent NGA exploit imagery of all types in support of national and in external community forums establishing Depart- military security goals, concerns, and strategies. They ment of Defense and intelligence community doctrine conduct multi-INT research, populate intelligence and policy. databases, and produce written, graphic, and oral intel­igence products. These analysts primarily analyze l GEOINT Analyst (Geodetic Survey)—solve three- military force structure, capabilities, intentions, and dimensional geodetic and astronomic positional prob- vulnerabilities of adversaries and potential ­ dversaries, a lems, determine geodetic and astronomic azimuths, and weapons proliferation, emerging technologies, and

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APPENDIX B 117 treaty monitoring. They also work on diverse issues and services. These duties are performed in fulfillment such as environmental concerns, counternarcotics, of the agency’s marine navigation obligations under disaster assessments, infrastructure, underground facili- U.S. Code, Title 10, other federal and international ties, and counterterrorism. laws and regulations, in support of national security goals, concerns, and strategies. GEOINT Analyst (Imagery Science)—apply ad- vanced techniques to determine the intelligence and GEOINT Analyst (Nautical Cartography)—acquire, geospatial information contained in imagery. They de- analyze, evaluate, and compile nautical products and velop algorithms, evaluate tools, and create customized mission-specific data in support of mission require- methodologies and products to address a variety of geo- ments and navigation safety. They evaluate information spatial intelligence problems. They typically specialize from a variety of sources to include foreign nautical in precision mensuration, radar, spectral, infrared, and charts, foreign notice to mariners, imagery, bathymetry, other specialized collection systems. publications, ship reports, and other forms of geospatial intelligence against current NGA hydrographic data GEOINT Analyst (Infrared Source Analysis)—­ holdings. They ensure the quality, accuracy, and cur- specialize in metric reconstruction, trajectory analysis, rency of nautical information produced either in-house and assessment of activity using nonliteral, infrared or in cooperation with contractors and national and data from persistent geospatial intelligence sources to international co-producers for national, military, and support characterization of foreign weapon system per- civil customers. formance, counterproliferation, battlespace awareness, and other intelligence issues. The analysts apply their GEOINT Analyst (Open Source Research)—­ understanding of weapon systems, spatial and temporal discover, retrieve, and analyze open and classified reconstruction, error analysis, signature interpretation, source data and apply expertise in evaluating and sensor phenomenology, and orbital mechanics to help acquiring sources of data. They develop regional and solve intelligence issues in accordance with the national subject expertise in order to provide information intelligence priority framework. They communicate the t ­ailored to mission requirements. They collaborate meaning and significance of their analysis as written, with other intelligence community agencies and out- visual, and/or oral geospatial intelligence. side institutions to enhance information access and resource sharing. They recommend and acquire source GEOINT Analyst (Lidar Image Science)—analyze materials to enhance resource center collections and point cloud data to derive intelligence and geospatial provide training to help customers optimize the use information. They conduct feature extraction, charac- of open source in support of the GEOINT mission. terize partially obscured objects, and perform change detection to support or extend analysis. They develop GEOINT Analyst (Persistent Operations)—­ algorithms, evaluate tools, and create customized lidar specialize in the real-time execution of tasking, col- methodologies to address a variety of geospatial intel- lection, processing, exploitation, and dissemination of ligence problems. persistent GEOINT resources and data. Real-time execution incorporates multi-INT collaborative inputs GEOINT Analyst (Maritime)—acquire, analyze, to address long-term and emerging customer require- compile, and disseminate maritime safety information ments. Emphasis is placed on time-dominant assess- and intelligence to populate and update nautical data­ ment and reporting, sensor allocation, and responsive bases to support the digital nautical chart, hardcopy collection capabilities of persistent GEOINT sensors. charts, digital publications, and electronic chart display and information systems. They generate mission- GEOINT Analyst (Photogrammetric Image specific data and products, promulgate worldwide navi- ­Science)—apply advanced techniques to measure the gational warnings, and respond to queries from foreign precise dimensions or relative size of objects on imag- hydrographic offices and the users of NGA products ery. This includes monoscopic, stereoscopic, overhead,

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118 APPENDIX B handheld, or video imagery. They develop mensuration results as multisource geospatial intelligence in support strategies, determine requirements, evaluate tools, and of the intelligence community and the National System create customized methodologies and products to ad- for Geospatial Intelligence. dress a variety of geospatial intelligence problems. GEOINT Analyst (Regional Source)—gather, assess, GEOINT Analyst (Photogrammetry)—perform and evaluate source materials and ensure its quality and i ­mage assessment, point selection, mensuration, tri- suitability to build foundational data. They conduct angulation, orthorectification, and processing in order feasibility studies for the production of standard and to produce standard and nonstandard image products. specialty products. They maintain data integrity for They increase the relative and absolute positioning ac- various databases. curacy of imagery from a variety of sensors to support mono and stereo exploitation. These analysts assess, GEOINT Analyst (Requirements and ­Integration)— evaluate, and extract elevation data from stereo imagery. support the requirements, processes, and integration of They support both internal and external customers, future systems and methodologies. They coordinate with review products produced by contractors and co-pro- mission partners and customers to define requirements, ducers, and ensure that final products can be generated evaluate, integrate, and transition to operations new to meet customer’s stringent accuracy requirements. technologies and associated functions. GEOINT Analyst (Political Geography)—apply GEOINT Analyst (Scientific Linguistics)—apply expertise in foreign languages and Romanization the principles of linguistics to problems encountered policies to research and analyze sources containing in the analysis and standardization of transliterated foreign geographic names information, make policy foreign geographic names. They collaborate with lan- recommendations for the standardization of foreign guage experts at the national and international level geographic names, and populate and maintain the to develop and implement consistent standardization Geographic Names Database. They monitor their area policies. These analysts actively research country- and of interest for administrative, political, and infrastruc- language-specific place-name issues and develop stan- ture changes to maintain professional currency. They dardization policy recommendations for review and advise the U.S. Board of Geographic Names and serve acceptance by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names as staff members of the Secretariat for the U.S. Board Foreign Names Committee. They ensure the linguistic of Geographic Names Foreign Names Committee. integrity of place-name intelligence developed by NGA on behalf of the U.S. Board on Geographic Names and GEOINT Analyst (Radar Image Science)—apply the intelligence community. advanced techniques to determine the intelligence and geospatial information contained in radar data. They GEOINT Analyst (Source Strategies)—collaborate develop algorithms, evaluate tools, and create custom- with customers and source providers to develop com- ized radar methodologies and products to address a prehensive multi-INT, multisource strategies to address variety of geospatial intelligence problems. intelligence problems. They create tasking and dissemi- nation requirements, adjudicate requirements, analyze GEOINT Analyst (Regional Geography)—apply and investigate collection performance, assess and knowledge and expertise in physical, sociocultural, and report on end-to-end GEOINT system performance political aspects of countries, regions, and urban areas data, and advise customers in support of the National to support national security goals, concerns, and strate- System for Geospatial Intelligence. gies. They gather and evaluate regional source data to build geospatial data layers that serve as a foundation GEOINT Analyst (Spectral Image Science)—apply for analytic work. Analyzing these data, they charac- advanced techniques to determine the intelligence and terize events, discover relationships and trends, infer geospatial information contained in the electro-optical conclusions, predict behaviors, and communicate these region of the spectrum. This includes the exploitation

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APPENDIX B 119 of multi- and hyperspectral imagery. They develop research strategy in their domain for NGA and the algo­ ithms, evaluate tools, and create customized spec- r intelligence community. They apply extensive Depart- tral methodologies and products to address a variety of ment of Defense and intelligence community experi- geospatial intelligence problems. ence to identify and promote ideas and opportunities to advance the agency’s ability to meet ever-expanding GEOINT Analyst (Thermal Infrared Image customer requirements for geospatial intelligence infor- S ­ cience)—apply advanced techniques to determine mation. Principal Scientists act as a facilitator to bring the intelligence and geospatial information contained diverse domains together to develop solutions based on in thermal infrared imagery. They conduct phenom- an integration and fusion of technologies and sources. enological studies on objects or events of interest to They support agency-level strategic planning. They inform intelligence conclusions. They develop algo- provide oversight and coordination for agency science rithms, evaluate tools, and create customized infrared and technology programs. methodologies and products to address a variety of geospatial intelligence problems. Project Scientist—responsible for the day-to-day ex- ecution and technical oversight of a variety of scientific GEOINT Analyst (Throughput Strategies)—­ activities. They develop project schedules, determine collaborate with customers and source providers to resource requirements, provide technical guidance and ensure the delivery of GEOINT source data. They oversight, and report results. Project Scientists apply develop optimal source production and dissemination in-depth expertise from a variety of scientific disciplines requirements, monitor and report on network health (e.g., photogrammetry, geodesy, GIS, computer sci- and status, implement relevant release policies, moni- ence, mathematics, image science) to develop, analyze, tor site bandwidth utilization, recommend alternative evaluate, and apply new technology; develop exper- delivery paths, maintain user site profiles/allocation, tise and tradecraft for the agency; and advise senior and support operations integration of new data sources management on new and evolving technology. They and system capabilities. participate in strategic planning, propose and defend program plans, and communicate and market results Principal Scientist—domain experts in a core agency to customers and decision makers. scientific discipline. They define and lead scientific

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120 APPENDIX B TABLE B.1  Education and Experience Requirements of Selected NGA Scientist and Analyst Positions Education Education and Experience Experience GEOINT Analyst (Aeronautical Intelligence) Bachelor’s degree in aeronautical science, A minimum of 30 semester (45 quarter) hours of A minimum of 6 years of work experience commercial aviation, flight, flight education, completed coursework in aeronautics, aerospace within a NGA analytical occupation that flight science, professional flight, professional engineering, aerospace studies, geospatial involved the acquisition, collection, analysis flight technology, air traffic control, air traffic information systems, global security and and evaluation, extraction and population, management, or another related degree that includes intelligence, cartography, homeland security, or and maintenance of NGA geospatial or actual or simulated experience mandated with the other areas related to aeronautical navigation and safety of navigation related databases curriculum along with a thorough knowledge of operations. PLUS Minimum of 250 hours of flight domestic and international air navigation principles experience as a pilot, co-pilot, navigator, or flight as well as airspace and airfield infrastructure and instructor OR Minimum of 3 years of civilian or operations military work experience as an air traffic controller, flight dispatcher, flight or ground school instructor, mission planner, aeronautical information specialist, terminal enroute procedural specialist, or other field which provided an understanding of air navigation principles, operations, publications, and airspace and airfield infrastructure and operating procedures GEOINT Analyst (Analytic Methodologist) Bachelor’s degree in applied mathematics, Four years, including a minimum of 24 semester geographic information science, geography, physical (36 quarter) hours of coursework in any area listed science, operations research, statistics, or a related in the education requirements and an additional discipline 6 semester (9 quarter) hours of college-level nonbusiness mathematics or statistics (e.g., college algebra, trigonometry, calculus, inferential statistics) plus experience working as an intelligence analyst or in a closely related field that demonstrates the ability to successfully perform the tasks associated with this work GEOINT Analyst (Bathymetry) Bachelor’s degree in geography, geology, Four years, including a minimum of 30 semester Six years of experience in the disciplines of hydrography, hydrology, marine sciences, (45 quarter) hours of coursework in any area listed hydrography or bathymetry that includes oceanography, physical science, remote sensing, in the education requirements, plus experience that marine surveying, the use of current GIS or a related discipline, or a bachelor’s degree with demonstrates the ability to successfully perform the tools, methods of research and analysis, 30 semester hours of coursework in the above duties associated with this work application of hydrographic or bathymetric disciplines. Designation as an American Congress principles, or work related to the disciplines on Surveying and Mapping-The Hydrographic listed in the education requirements Society of America Certified Hydrographer is highly desired continued

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APPENDIX B 121 TABLE B.1 Continued Education Education and Experience Experience GEOINT Analyst (Cartography) Bachelor’s degree in cartography or a major Four years, including a minimum of 30 semester Six years of significant applied experience in that included, or was supplemented by, at least (45 quarter) hours of coursework in any area listed the cartographic field that includes the use 30 semester (45 quarter) hours of coursework in the education requirements plus experience that of current GIS tools in cartography and/or directly related sciences demonstrates the ability to successfully perform the and mathematics. Coursework may include, duties associated with this work but is not limited to, astronomy, cartography, forestry, geodesy, geology, geophysics, GIS, land surveying, photogrammetry, physical and geological oceanography, geography, and remote sensing. Computer software classes associated with current technology, GIS courses, and information management classes may also be counted. The 30 semester (45 quarter) hours must include at least 6 semester (9 quarter) hours of college-level nonbusiness mathematics or statistics, but these should not account for more than 15 semester (22 quarter) hours GEOINT Analyst (Foundation Strategies) Bachelor’s degree in cartography, cultural area Four years, including a minimum of 24 semester Six years of significant applied experience studies, earth sciences, environmental science, (36 quarter) hours of coursework in any area listed in the intelligence field, imagery analysis, geodesy, geography, geology, GIS, history, in the education requirements plus experience that cartography, the use of current GIS tools, hydrography, hydrology, imagery science, demonstrates the ability to successfully perform the or work related to the fields listed in the international affairs/studies, liberal studies, duties associated with this work education requirements oceanography, photogrammetry, physical science, political science, remote sensing, or a related discipline GEOINT Analyst (Geodetic Earth Sciences) Bachelor’s degree in geodesy, mathematics, physical Four years, including a minimum of 30 semester Six years of experience in conducting science, or a related discipline that includes at least (45 quarter) hours of coursework in any area listed work related to civil engineering, geodesy, 30 semester (45 quarter) hours of coursework in any in the education requirements plus experience that geophysics, geotechnical analysis, geodetic combination of astronomy, cartography, computer demonstrates the ability to successfully perform the surveying, or related experience science, engineering science, geodesy, geology, duties associated with this work geomatics, geophysics, mathematics, meteorology, orbital mechanics, photogrammetry, physical science, physics, remote sensing, or surveying. Coursework must include differential equations and integral calculus GEOINT Analyst (Geodetic Orbit Sciences) Bachelor’s degree in geodesy, mathematics, physical Four years, including a minimum of 30 semester Six years of experience in conducting science, or a related discipline that includes at least (45 quarter) hours of coursework in any area listed work related to satellite operations, GPS 30 semester (45 quarter) hours of coursework in any in the education requirements plus experience that surveying, geodesy, geophysics, or Wide combination of astronomy, cartography, computer demonstrates the ability to successfully perform the Area Network analysis science, engineering science, geodesy, geology, duties associated with this work geomatics, geophysics, mathematics, meteorology, orbital mechanics, photogrammetry, physical science, physics, remote sensing, or surveying. Coursework must include differential equations and integral calculus continued

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122 APPENDIX B TABLE B.1 Continued Education Education and Experience Experience GEOINT Analyst (Geodetic Survey) Bachelor’s degree in geodesy, mathematics, physical Four years, including a minimum of 30 semester Six years of experience in conducting science, or a related discipline that includes at (45 quarter) hours of coursework in any area listed work related to civil engineering, geodesy, least 30 semester (45 quarter) hours of coursework in the education requirements plus experience that geophysics, geotechnical analysis, surveying, in any combination of astronomy, cartography, demonstrates the ability to successfully perform the or related experience. Classification as a computer science, engineering science, geodesy, duties associated with this work Professional Engineer or Land Surveyor is geology, geomatics, geophysics, GIS, mathematics, highly desirable meteorology, orbital mechanics, photogrammetry, physical science, physics, remote sensing, or surveying. Coursework must include differential equations and integral calculus GEOINT Analyst (Geospatial Analysis) Bachelor’s degree in a cartography, geography, GIS, Four years, including a minimum of 24 semester (36 Six years of significant applied experience physical science, applied mathematics, statistics, quarter) hours of coursework in GIS, spatial analysis, in a geospatial analysis field that includes or a related discipline, or a bachelor’s degree in or any area listed in the education requirements plus the use of current GIS tools, methods any discipline with a certificate in GIS from an additional experience that demonstrates the ability of research and analysis, application of accredited university to successfully perform the duties associated with cartographic principles, and work related this work. A certificate in GIS from an accredited to the fields listed in the education university or an emphasis in GIS is highly desired requirements GEOINT Analyst (Geospatial Data Stewardship) Bachelor’s degree in cartography, computer science, Four years, including a minimum of 30 semester Six years of significant applied experience geology, geography, geomatics, GIS, physical (45 quarter) hours of coursework in any area listed in a field that includes geospatial analysis, science, urban and regional planning, or a related in the education requirements plus experience that feature extraction, and data evaluation and discipline. The 30 semester (45 quarter) hours must demonstrates the ability to successfully perform the manipulation include at least 6 semester (9 quarter) hours of duties associated with this work college-level nonbusiness mathematics or statistics, but these should not account for more than 15 semester (22 quarter) hours GEOINT Analyst (Imagery Intelligence) Bachelor’s degree in engineering, foreign area Four years, including a minimum of 24 semester Six years of significant applied experience in studies, geography, history, imagery science, (36 quarter) hours of college coursework in any imagery analysis or all-source intelligence international affairs, military science, physical area listed in the education requirements plus experience, or six years in combat arms or in science, political science, remote sensing, or a related experience working as an imagery analyst, OR in a combat support for military personnel discipline closely related field that demonstrates the ability to successfully perform the tasks associated with this work GEOINT Analyst (Imagery Science) Bachelor’s degree in engineering, imagery science, Four years, including a minimum of 24 semester mathematics, physical science, or a related discipline (36 quarter) hours of coursework in any area listed in the education requirements, plus experience that demonstrates the ability to successfully perform the duties associated with this work GEOINT Analyst (Infrared Source Analysis) Bachelor’s degree in mathematics, engineering, Four years, including a minimum of 24 semester A minimum of 4 years of relevant military geography, physical science, remote sensing, or a (36 quarter) hours of college coursework in any area experience or experience working in a related discipline listed in the education requirements, plus experience geospatial intelligence discipline working in a geospatial intelligence discipline or in a closely related field that demonstrates the ability to successfully perform the tasks associated with this work continued

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APPENDIX B 123 TABLE B.1 Continued Education Education and Experience Experience GEOINT Analyst (Lidar Image Science) Bachelor’s degree in engineering, imagery science, Four years, including a minimum of 24 semester mathematics, physical science, or a related discipline (36 quarter) hours of coursework in any area listed in the education requirements, plus experience that demonstrates the ability to successfully perform the duties associated with this work GEOINT Analyst (Maritime) Bachelor’s degree from a federal or state maritime Three years of general experience that academy, the U.S. Naval Academy, or the U.S. demonstrates knowledge in the field of Coast Guard Academy. Education must include marine navigation. Examples of qualifying successful completion of the requirements for a U.S. experience include navigation and sea Coast Guard Third Mate’s License or Officer of the experience on U.S. oceangoing vessels, Deck Underway Qualification by the U.S. Navy or experience as an instructor on marine U.S. Coast Guard. Strongly desired candidates will navigational subjects, or other related also include classes in GIS software experience. Experience must include successful completion of the requirements for a U.S. Coast Guard Third Mate’s License or Officer of the Deck Underway Qualification by the U.S. Navy or U.S. Coast Guard. Strongly desired candidates will also include classes in GIS software GEOINT Analyst (Open Source Research) A Master of Science in library science, library Four years, including a minimum of 24 semester Six years of significant applied experience and information science, information science (36 quarter) hours of coursework in any area in information retrieval that includes and learning technologies, or a similar program listed in the bachelor’s education requirements methods of research and analysis, the use from an accredited university OR a bachelor’s plus experience that demonstrates the ability to of current GIS tools, or work related to degree in cartography, cultural area studies, earth successfully perform the duties associated with this the fields listed in the bachelor’s education sciences, engineering, environmental science, work requirements foreign language, geodesy, geography, GIS, history, hydrography, hydrology, imagery science, international affairs/studies, oceanography, photogrammetry, physical science, remote sensing, or a related discipline GEOINT Analyst (Persistent Operations) Bachelor’s degree in science, technology, business Four years, including a minimum of 24 semester Six years of experience in a GEOINT- administration, or a related field (36 quarter) hours of college coursework in any related field area listed in the education requirements plus experience working in a GEOINT related field that demonstrates the ability to successfully perform the tasks associated with this work GEOINT Analyst (Photogrammetric Image Science) Bachelor’s degree in engineering, imagery science, Four years, including a minimum of 24 semester mathematics, physical science, or a related discipline (36 quarter) hours of coursework in any area listed in the education requirements, plus experience that demonstrates the ability to successfully perform the duties associated with this work continued

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124 APPENDIX B TABLE B.1 Continued Education Education and Experience Experience GEOINT Analyst (Photogrammetry) Bachelor’s degree in cartography or a major that Four years, including a minimum of 30 semester Six years of significant applied experience included, or was supplemented by, at least 30 (45 quarter) hours of coursework in any area listed in the cartographic field that includes the semester (45 quarter) hours of coursework in in the education requirements plus experience that application of mensuration techniques cartography and/or directly related sciences and demonstrates the ability to successfully perform the mathematics. Coursework may include, but is duties associated with this work not limited to, cartography, computer science, geodesy, geology, geophysics, land surveying, photogrammetry, geography, remote sensing, or a related discipline. The 30 semester (45 quarter) hours must include at least 6 semester (9 quarter) hours of college-level nonbusiness mathematics or statistics, but these should not account for more than 15 semester (22 quarter) hours GEOINT Analyst (Political Geography) Bachelor’s degree in anthropology, cartography, Four years, including a minimum of 24 semester Six years of significant applied experience cultural area studies, foreign language, geography, (36 quarter) hours of coursework in any area listed in geography that includes the application GIS, history, international affairs/studies, linguistics, in the education requirements, plus experience that of foreign language or linguistics, methods or a related discipline demonstrates the ability to successfully perform the of research and analysis, application of duties associated with this work cartographic principles, and work related to the fields listed in the education requirements GEOINT Analyst (Radar Image Science) Bachelor’s degree in engineering, imagery science, Four years, including a minimum of 24 semester mathematics, physical science, or a related discipline (36 quarter) hours of coursework in any area listed in the education requirements, plus experience that demonstrates the ability to successfully perform the duties associated with this work GEOINT Analyst (Regional Geography) Bachelor’s degree in anthropology, cartography, Four years, including a minimum of 24 semester Six years of significant applied experience cultural area studies, earth sciences, foreign (36 quarter) hours of coursework in any area listed in geography or related fields that includes language, geography, GIS, history, international in the education requirements, plus experience that the use of current GIS tools, methods affairs/studies, sociology, or a related discipline demonstrates the ability to successfully perform the of research and analysis, application of duties associated with this work cartographic principles, and work related to the fields listed in the education requirements GEOINT Analyst (Regional Source) Bachelor’s degree in cartography, geography, GIS, Four years, including a minimum of 24 semester Six years of significant applied experience information science, library science, or a related (36 quarter) hours of coursework in any area listed in the use of current GIS tools, methods discipline in the education requirements, plus experience that of research and analysis, application of demonstrates the ability to successfully perform the cartographic principles, and work related duties associated with this work to the fields listed in the education requirements GEOINT Analyst (Requirements & Integration) None Six years of education and experience. Education Six years of significant applied experience in and experience in remote sensing, geography, remote sensing, geography, intelligence, or intelligence, or equivalent areas. Experience in equivalent areas acquisition and/or program management is highly desirable continued

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APPENDIX B 125 TABLE B.1 Continued Education Education and Experience Experience GEOINT Analyst (Scientific Linguistics) Bachelor’s degree in linguistics or an NGA-specified Four years in a NGA-specified foreign language foreign language with a minimum of 6 semester that includes a minimum of 6 semester (9 quarter) (9 quarter) hours of coursework in linguistics. hours of coursework in linguistics and demonstrates Master’s degree in theoretical linguistics is highly the ability to successfully perform the duties desirable. The candidate must also receive a reading associated with this work. The candidate must also proficiency level 2 on the Defense Language receive a reading proficiency level 2 on the Defense Proficiency Test in a foreign language specified by Language Proficiency Test in a foreign language NGA specified by NGA GEOINT Analyst (Source Strategies) Bachelor’s degree in cartography, cultural area studies, Four years, including a minimum of 24 semester Six years of significant applied experience earth sciences, environmental science, geodesy, (36 quarter) hours of coursework in any area listed in the intelligence field, imagery analysis, geography, geology, GIS, history, hydrography, in the education requirements plus experience that the use of current GIS tools, or work hydrology, imagery science, international demonstrates the ability to successfully perform the related to the fields listed in the education affairs/studies, liberal studies, oceanography, duties associated with this work requirements photogrammetry, physical science, political science, remote sensing, or a related discipline GEOINT Analyst (Spectral Image Science) Bachelor’s degree in engineering, imagery science, Four years, including a minimum of 24 semester mathematics, physical science, or a related discipline (36 quarter) hours of coursework in any area listed in the education requirements, plus experience that demonstrates the ability to successfully perform the duties associated with this work GEOINT Analyst (Thermal Infrared Image Science) Bachelor’s degree in engineering, imagery science, Four years, including a minimum of 24 semester mathematics, physical science, or a related discipline (36 quarter) hours of coursework in any area listed in the education requirements, plus experience that demonstrates the ability to successfully perform the duties associated with this work GEOINT Analyst (Throughput Strategies) Bachelor’s degree in cartography, communications, Five years, including a minimum of 24 semester Six years of significant applied experience cultural area studies, earth sciences, engineering, (36 quarter) hours of coursework in any area listed in the application of communication environmental science, geography, geology, GIS, in the education requirements plus experience that strategies, architecture, systems integration, history, imagery science, international affairs/ demonstrates the ability to successfully perform the throughput management, requirements studies, liberal studies, photogrammetry, physical duties associated with this work analysis, or work related to the fields listed science, remote sensing, or a related discipline in the education requirements Principal Scientist Bachelor’s degree in engineering, mathematics, Four years, including minimum of 24 semester physical science, or a related discipline that (36 quarter) hours of coursework in any area listed includes at least 24 semester (36 quarter) hours in in the education requirements plus additional physical science and/or related engineering science. experience that demonstrates the ability to Such coursework includes, but is not limited to, successfully perform the duties associated with this astronomy, cartography, chemistry, computer work science, dynamics, electrical engineering, geodesy, geology, geophysics, GIS, mathematics, orbital mechanics, photogrammetry, physics, remote sensing, or surveying. An advanced degree (e.g., M.S., Ph.D.) in engineering, mathematics, physical science, or a related discipline is preferred continued

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126 APPENDIX B TABLE B.1 Continued Education Education and Experience Experience Project Scientist Bachelor’s degree in engineering, mathematics, Four years, including a minimum of 24 semester physical science, or a related discipline that (36 quarter) hours of college education in any areas includes 24 semester (36 quarter) hours in physical listed in the education requirements plus experience science and/or a related engineering science. that demonstrates the ability to successfully perform Such coursework includes, but is not limited to, the duties associated with this work astronomy, cartography, chemistry, computer science, dynamics, electrical engineering, geodesy, geology, geophysics, GIS, mathematics, orbital mechanics, photogrammetry, physics, remote sensing, or surveying. Although not mandatory, coursework in differential and integral calculus is preferred NOTE: As a rule, every 30 semester (45 quarter) hours of college work is equivalent to one year of experience. SOURCE: NGA.