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Appendix D Data on Occupations TABLE D.1  2010 Bureau of Labor Statistics Codes and Descriptions of 36 Occupations That Are Relevant to NGA Code Title Description 15-1111 Computer and information Conduct research into fundamental computer and information science as theorists, designers, or inventors. research scientists Develop solutions to problems in the field of computer hardware and software 15-1121 Computer systems analysts Analyze science, engineering, business, and other data processing problems to implement and improve computer systems. Analyze user requirements, procedures, and problems to automate or improve existing systems and review computer system capabilities, workflow, and scheduling limitations. May analyze or recommend commercially available software 15-1131 Computer programmers Create, modify, and test the code, forms, and script that allow computer applications to run. Work from specifications drawn up by software developers or other individuals. May assist software developers by analyzing user needs and designing software solutions. May develop and write computer programs to store, locate, and retrieve specific documents, data, and information 15-1132 Software developers, Develop, create, and modify general computer applications software or specialized utility programs. applications Analyze user needs and develop software solutions. Design software or customize software for client use with the aim of optimizing operational efficiency. May analyze and design databases within an application area, working individually or coordinating database development as part of a team. May supervise computer programmers 15-1799 Computer occupations, all All computer specialists not listed separately (e.g., computer laboratory technician) other 15-2021 Mathematicians Conduct research in fundamental mathematics or in application of mathematical techniques to science, management, and other fields. Solve problems in various fields using mathematical methods 15-2031 Operations research analysts Formulate and apply mathematical modeling and other optimizing methods to develop and interpret information that assists management with decision making, policy formulation, or other managerial functions. May collect and analyze data and develop decision support software, service, or products. May develop and supply optimal time, cost, or logistics networks for program evaluation, review, or implementation 15-2041 Statisticians Develop or apply mathematical or statistical theory and methods to collect, organize, interpret, and summarize numerical data to provide usable information. May specialize in fields such as biostatistics, agricultural statistics, business statistics, or economic statistics. Includes mathematical and survey statisticians. Excludes survey researchers 15-2091 Mathematical technicians Apply standardized mathematical formulas, principles, and methodology to technological problems in engineering and physical sciences in relation to specific industrial and research objectives, processes, equipment, and products 15-2099 Mathematical science All mathematical scientists not listed separately (e.g., harmonic analyst) occupations, all other continued 159

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160 APPENDIX D TABLE D.1 Continued Code Title Description 17-1021 Cartographers and Collect, analyze, and interpret geographic information provided by geodetic surveys, aerial photographs, photogrammetrists and satellite data. Research, study, and prepare maps and other spatial data in digital or graphic form for legal, social, political, educational, and design purposes. May work with Geographic Information Systems (GIS). May design and evaluate algorithms, data structures, and user interfaces for GIS and mapping systems 17-1022 Surveyors Make exact measurements and determine property boundaries. Provide data relevant to the shape, contour, gravitation, location, elevation, or dimension of land or land features on or near the earth’s surface for engineering, mapmaking, mining, land evaluation, construction, and other purposes 17-2011 Aerospace engineers Perform engineering duties in designing, constructing, and testing aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft. May conduct basic and applied research to evaluate adaptability of materials and equipment to aircraft design and manufacture. May recommend improvements in testing equipment and techniques 17-2061 Computer hardware engineers Research, design, develop, or test computer or computer-related equipment for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use. May supervise the manufacturing and installation of computer or computer- related equipment and components. Excludes software developers, applications and software developers, systems software 17-2071 Electrical engineers Research, design, develop, test, or supervise the manufacturing and installation of electrical equipment, components, or systems for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use. Excludes computer hardware engineers 17-2199 Engineers, all other All engineers not listed separately (e.g., photonics engineer, optical engineer) 17-3031 Surveying and mapping Perform surveying and mapping duties, usually under the direction of an engineer, surveyor, cartographer, technicians or photogrammetrist to obtain data used for construction, mapmaking, boundary location, mining, or other purposes. May calculate mapmaking information and create maps from source data, such as surveying notes, aerial photography, satellite data, or other maps to show topographical features, political boundaries, and other features. May verify accuracy and completeness of maps. Excludes surveyors; cartographers and photogrammetrists; and geoscientists, except hydrologists and geographers 19-2011 Astronomers Observe, research, and interpret astronomical phenomena to increase basic knowledge or apply such information to practical problems 19-2012 Physicists Conduct research into physical phenomena, develop theories on the basis of observation and experiments, and devise methods to apply physical laws and theories. Excludes biochemists and biophysicists 19-2021 Atmospheric and space Investigate atmospheric phenomena and interpret meteorological data, gathered by surface and air scientists stations, satellites, and radar to prepare reports and forecasts for public and other uses. Includes weather analysts and forecasters whose functions require the detailed knowledge of meteorology 19-2041 Environmental scientists and Conduct research or perform investigation for the purpose of identifying, abating, or eliminating sources specialists, including health of pollutants or hazards that affect either the environment or the health of the population. Using knowledge of various scientific disciplines, may collect, synthesize, study, report, and recommend action based on data derived from measurements or observations of air, food, soil, water, and other sources. Excludes zoologists and wildlife biologists, conservation scientists, forest and conservation technicians, fish and game wardens, and forest and conservation workers 19-2042 Geoscientists, except Study the composition, structure, and other physical aspects of the Earth. May use geological, physics, hydrologists and geographers and mathematics knowledge in exploration for oil, gas, minerals, or underground water; or in waste disposal, land reclamation, or other environmental problems. May study the Earth’s internal composition, atmospheres, oceans, and its magnetic, electrical, and gravitational forces. Includes mineralogists, crystallographers, paleontologists, stratigraphers, geodesists, and seismologists 19-2043 Hydrologists Research the distribution, circulation, and physical properties of underground and surface waters; and study the form and intensity of precipitation, its rate of infiltration into the soil, movement through the Earth, and its return to the ocean and atmosphere 19-2099 Physical scientists, all other All physical scientists not listed separately 19-3041 Sociologists Study human society and social behavior by examining the groups and social institutions that people form, as well as various social, religious, political, and business organizations. May study the behavior and interaction of groups, trace their origin and growth, and analyze the influence of group activities on individual members 19-3051 Urban and regional planners Develop comprehensive plans and programs for use of land and physical facilities of local jurisdictions, such as towns, cities, counties, and metropolitan areas continued

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APPENDIX D 161 TABLE D.1 Continued Code Title Description 19-3091 Anthropologists and Study the origin, development, and behavior of human beings. May study the way of life, language, or archeologists physical characteristics of people in various parts of the world. May engage in systematic recovery and examination of material evidence, such as tools or pottery remaining from past human cultures, in order to determine the history, customs, and living habits of earlier civilizations 19-3092 Geographers Study the nature and use of areas of the Earth’s surface, relating and interpreting interactions of physical and cultural phenomena. Conduct research on physical aspects of a region, including land forms, climates, soils, plants, and animals, and conduct research on the spatial implications of human activities within a given area, including social characteristics, economic activities, and political organization, as well as researching interdependence between regions at scales ranging from local to global 19-3093 Historians Research, analyze, record, and interpret the past as recorded in sources, such as government and institutional records, newspapers and other periodicals, photographs, interviews, films, electronic media, and unpublished manuscripts, such as personal diaries and letters 19-3094 Political scientists Study the origin, development, and operation of political systems. May study topics, such as public opinion, political decision making, and ideology. May analyze the structure and operation of governments, as well as various political entities. May conduct public opinion surveys, analyze election results, or analyze public documents. Excludes survey researchers 19-3099 Social scientists and related All social scientists and related workers not listed separately workers, all other 19-4093 Forest and conservation Provide technical assistance regarding the conservation of soil, water, forests, or related natural resources. technicians May compile data pertaining to size, content, condition, and other characteristics of forest tracts, under the direction of foresters; or train and lead forest workers in forest propagation, fire prevention and suppression. May assist conservation scientists in managing, improving, and protecting rangelands and wildlife habitats. Excludes conservation scientists and foresters 19-4099 Life, physical, and social All life, physical, and social science technicians not listed separately science technicians, all other 25-4021 Librarians Administer libraries and perform related library services. Work in a variety of settings, including public libraries, educational institutions, museums, corporations, government agencies, law firms, nonprofit organizations, and healthcare providers. Tasks may include selecting, acquiring, cataloguing, classifying, circulating, and maintaining library materials, and furnishing reference, bibliographical, and readers’ advisory services. May perform in-depth, strategic research, and synthesize, analyze, edit, and filter information. May set up or work with databases and information systems to catalogue and access information 27-1014 Multi-media artists and Create special effects, animation, or other visual images using film, video, computers, or other electronic animators tools and media for use in products or creations, such as computer games, movies, music videos, and commercials 43-9111 Statistical assistants Compile and compute data according to statistical formulas for use in statistical studies. May perform actuarial computations and compile charts and graphs for use by actuaries SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics Standard Occupational Classification, 2010 version, .

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162 APPENDIX D TABLE D.2  Employment and Salary of NGA-Relevant Occupations Number of Jobs (2010)a Mean Annual Salary (2010) Private Federal Private Federal Occupation All Sectorsb Sector Government All Sectors Sector Government 15-1111 Computer and information research scientists 24,900 18,180 6,080 $103,150 $104,110 $102,070 15-1121 Computer systems analysts 495,800 442,120 660 $81,250 $82,800 $79,750 15-1131 Computer programmers 333,620 308,360 60 $74,900 $75,840 $88,790 15-1132 Software developers, applications 499,280 476,080 — $90,410 $91,290 — 15-1799 Computer occupations, all other 183,110 97,910 68,600 $79,790 $75,050 $90,480 15-2021 Mathematicians 2,830 1,420 1,020 $100,260 $103,080 $106,950 15-2031 Operations research analysts 62,210 50,070 4,670 $76,980 $77,250 $105,840 15-2041 Statisticians 22,830 13,530 4,650 $76,070 $77,730 $93,770 15-2091 Mathematical technicians 960 440 70 $49,170 $60,240 $34,030 15-2099 Mathematical science occupations, all other 1,290 870 210 $70,760 $78,590 $52,370 17-1021 Cartographers and photogrammetrists 11,670 7,280 670 $60,970 $61,790 $82,980 17-1022 Surveyors 43,950 38,680 480 $58,140 $56,860 $82,230 17-2011 Aerospace engineers 78,450 68,720 9,220 $99,000 $97,680 $110,780 17-2061 Computer hardware engineers 66,960 62,100 4,430 $101,600 $101,790 $102,200 17-2071 Electrical engineers 148,770 140,260 4,260 $87,770 $88,040 $89,410 17-2199 Engineers, all other 139,610 105,620 25,490 $91,770 $88,800 $108,690 17-3031 Surveying and mapping technicians 53,870 42,620 1,340 $40,370 $39,210 $47,350 19-2011 Astronomers 1,840 950 440 $93,340 $86,520 $132,010 19-2012 Physicists 16,860 11,680 3,210 $112,020 $117,050 $113,470 19-2021 Atmospheric and space scientists 8,640 4,210 3,010 $88,010 $83,250 $95,760 19-2041 Environmental scientists and specialists, 81,690 39,960 5,850 $67,810 $70,950 $95,680 including health 19-2042 Geoscientists, except hydrologists and 30,830 23,870 2,460 $93,380 $97,890 $95,580 geographers 19-2043 Hydrologists 6,910 3,390 2,000 $79,280 $82,070 $82,900 19-2099 Physical scientists, all other 24,690 11,650 8,460 $95,780 $100,030 $104,620 19-3041 Sociologists 3,710 2,400 — $80,130 $84,350 — 19-3051 Urban and regional planners 38,830 8,880 750 $66,020 $73,110 $88,740 19-3091 Anthropologists and archeologists 5,100 3,060 1,360 $58,040 $53,130 $71,940 19-3092 Geographers 1,300 340 770 $72,890 $72,200 $76,770 19-3093 Historians 3,320 1,140 760 $57,840 $58,080 $88,130 19-3094 Political scientists 4,470 1,360 2,610 $107,930 $109,990 $115,890 19-3099 Social scientists and related workers, all other 28,420 8,160 15,260 $77,890 $78,240 $83,170 19-4093 Forest and conservation technicians 32,290 1,060 25,070 $36,860 $37,420 $36,680 19-4099 Life, physical, and social science technicians, 55,360 32,840 7,660 $45,980 $46,430 $51,890 all other 25-4021 Librarians 148,240 30,020 1,720 $56,360 $55,040 $80,500 27-1014 Multi-media artists and animators 26,560 25,760 — $63,440 $63,750 — 43-9111 Statistical assistants 15,490 7,280 2,190 $37,090 $41,850 $34,340 TOTAL 2,704,660 2,092,270 215,490 a Estimates include workers who are paid a wage or salary. They do not include the self-employed, owners and partners in unincorporated firms, household workers, or unpaid family workers. b Sectors include federal government, state government, local government, and private companies. SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, occupational employment statistics from May 2010, .

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APPENDIX D 163 TABLE D.3  Percent of U.S. Citizens Employed in NGA-Relevant Occupations in 2010 That Are Serving or Have Served in the Military Occupation Title Percent Serving or Served in Military Computer and information research scientists 9.7 Computer systems analysts 10.6 Computer programmers 10.2 Software developers, applications and systems software 9.7 Computer occupations, all other 15.6 Operations research analysts 18.3 Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations, including mathematicians and statisticians 6.1 Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists 11.1 Aerospace engineers 15.1 Computer hardware engineers 9.8 Electrical and electronics engineers 15.6 Surveying and mapping technicians 16.2 Astronomers and physicists 11.3 Atmospheric and space scientists 39.5 Environmental scientists and geoscientists 9.4 Physical scientists, all other 5.4 Miscellaneous social scientists, including survey researchers and sociologists 15.7 Miscellaneous life, physical, and social science technicians, including social science research assistants 8.0 Librarians 2.3 Artists and related workers 6.0 Statistical assistants 7.3 SOURCE: Data from the U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2010 Public Use Microdata Sample. Includes those employed as of the survey reference period. Occupation titles are based on the 2010 Census occupational classification system (and are consistent with the 2010 Standard Occupation Code system).

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164 APPENDIX D TABLE D.4  Annual Average Unemployment Rates for Wage and Salary Workers in NGA-Relevant Occupations Unemployment Rateb Occupation Titlea 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Computer scientists and systems analysts 2.5 2.1 2.2 6.0 5.9 Computer programmers 2.4 2.2 3.5 4.8 5.8 Computer software engineers 2.1 1.7 1.7 4.2 4.5 Mathematicians NA NA NA NA NA Operations research analysts 1.5 1.5 1.5 2.8 1.9 Statisticians 1.8 NA 2.6 3.1 0.8 Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists 1.6 4.3 3.2 7.4 2.2 Aerospace engineers 1.3 0.6 1.3 1.6 4.7 Computer hardware engineers 1.2 2.6 1.5 5.4 4.3 Electrical and electronics engineers 1.7 0.9 2.3 6.6 5.5 Surveying and mapping technicians 6.9 3.5 6.9 11.2 15.0 Astronomers and physicists 2.3 5.1 5.0 NA 3.1 Atmospheric and space scientists 17.0 1.0 NA NA NA Environmental scientists and geoscientists 1.3 2.8 1.3 4.7 2.3 Physical scientists, all other 0.9 1.0 1.9 2.7 2.7 Sociologists NA 0.7 NA NA 6.7 Urban and regional planners 2.8 0.8 0.9 5.0 1.2 Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers 5.8 6.9 4.3 6.0 5.1 Other life, physical, and social science technicians 2.0 1.2 1.4 7.4 6.5 Librarians 1.6 1.0 3.4 4.1 2.5 Artists and related workers 5.4 5.8 8.1 7.8 13.8 Statistical assistants 2.3 2.9 2.6 10.7 6.8 Management, professional, and related occupationsc 2.1 2.1 2.7 4.7 4.8 NOTE: NA = not available a Occupation titles are based on the 2002 Census occupational classification system (and are consistent with the 2000 Standard Occupation Code system). b The unemployment rate is the percentage of the labor force that is unemployed. It is calculated by dividing the number of people who are unemployed (i.e., people without jobs who are looking for work) by the number of people in the labor force (i.e., employed people plus unemployed people). To estimate unemployment rates by occupation, those employed are classified according to their current occupation, and those who are unemployed are classified according to the occupation of their last job held. See for more detail on how the government calculates the unemployment rate. c Included as a benchmark. SOURCE: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, . TABLE D.5  Percent of Workforce That Are U.S. Citizens for NGA-Relevant Occupations Percent U.S. Citizens Occupation 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Computer scientists and systems analysts 89.6 90.0 89.3 89.9 89.9 Computer programmers 89.1 88.6 89.4 89.3 89.3 Computer software engineers 77.9 76.8 79.2 79.0 79.5 Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations, including mathematicians 85.8 86.2 85.7 87.1 87.6 and statisticians Operations research analysts 95.2 95.6 95.9 95.9 95.0 Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists 97.6 97.7 97.2 98.0 96.0 Aerospace engineers 94.6 94.8 96.5 96.3 96.9 Computer hardware engineers 78.4 87.0 86.5 85.4 88.4 Electrical and electronics engineers 88.9 90.3 90.5 90.6 90.6 Surveying and mapping technicians 98.3 97.2 98.3 97.7 97.1 Astronomers and physicists 91.3 85.2 84.1 83.4 85.9 Atmospheric and space scientists 90.6 99.1 98.9 95.7 95.0 Environmental scientists and geoscientists 95.4 95.5 94.8 95.6 95.1 Physical scientists, all other 78.4 77.0 78.5 76.2 76.3 Urban and regional planners 96.6 98.6 95.0 97.0 96.5 Miscellaneous social scientists, including sociologists 92.9 93.5 93.8 96.3 95.8 Miscellaneous life, physical, and social science technicians 93.0 92.4 92.5 92.5 93.4 Librarians 97.7 97.7 98.1 97.1 97.7 Artists and related workers 92.9 94.0 93.3 93.2 93.2 Statistical assistants 97.1 97.5 97.2 96.2 97.0 SOURCE: Data from the U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, Public Use Microdata Samples (2005-2009). Includes those employed as of the survey reference period. Occupation titles are based on the 2002 Census occupational classification system (and are consistent with the 2000 Standard Occupation Code system).