FIGURE 2.9 Screen shot of an application of the GeoDa software for spatial data analysis (Anselin et al., 2006) illustrating an exploration of spatial patterns of house prices in Seattle, Washington. The different graphs and maps are dynamically linked in the sense that selected observations (highlighted in yellow) are simultaneously selected in all windows. SOURCE: Anselin (2005).

which relies increasingly on a web browser to query, analyze, and visualize spatial data. Crowdsourcing is becoming more important, changing the role of traditional data providers, and the notion of cyberGIS (extensions of cyberinfrastructure frameworks that account for the special characteristics of geospatial data and geospatial analytical operations, e.g., Wang, 2010) is around the corner. Research in geospatial analysis is embracing the study of space-time dynamics associated with both human and physical phenomena, increasingly supported by massive quantities of data. This new direction requires new conceptual frameworks, methods, and computational techniques and is driving a rapidly evolving state of the art.

Knowledge and Skills

GIS and geospatial analysis are taught in undergraduate and graduate curricula in a wide range of university programs, such as geography, urban planning, landscape architecture, ecology, anthropology, and civil engineering. The core curriculum for GIS education is laid out in the “Body of Knowledge” (DiBiase et al., 2006), which is used by many higher education institutions to help structure GIS offerings.5 The core curriculum outlines a range of necessary knowledge and skills, including a solid foundation in cartography, information systems, computer science, geocomputation, statistics, and operations research. Most university programs include coursework in a subset of these skills, but few deliver the full range of skills.

Education and Professional Preparation Programs

GIS educational programs and their degree of technical sophistication vary widely and range from community college training to undergraduate and


5 Community input is currently being gathered for the second edition of the Body of Knowledge.

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