FIGURE 3.4 Different types of visualization used in human geography. (Top right) A social network (lines between the locations of participants) superimposed on a NASA Worldwind visualization of the globe. Such images are used to show the relation of social network ties to physical space. (Middle left) Map showing the density of a particular activity. Each dot indicates the location where an actor of interest has been seen. The background image is a standard ARCGIS shape file. (Middle right) Tracking information for two ships, used to track who or what was where when and to identify common paths. Solid lines show known movement between locations (colored columns) and dashed lines indicate inferred movement or lack of movement. Time is vertical and locations are horizontal. (Bottom left) Locations of actors of interest (dots) and secondary information about the spatial density of the betweenness of the nodes (clouds; e.g., Freeman, 1977). Such images are used to identify critical locations. Background image is from NASA Worldwind. (Bottom right) Heat map image of Afghanistan using a standard ARCGIS shapefile. Each region is colored by the number of times actors of interest have been in that region. The brighter the red, the higher the level of activity. Such images are used to understand the region of activity and identify points of intervention. SOURCE: All images were produced using ORA.

domain. The use of new technologies and methods, such as network analysis, graph-based statistics, and evolutionary agent-based modeling, distinguishes the emerging area of human geography from its roots as a subfield of geography, sociology, and anthropology.


Although human geography has been around for more than a century, the decision to build a human terrain program for the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan

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