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FIGURE Social network analysis is used to show changes in criticality of topics-protests and demonstrations, war and conflict, and Internet and social networking-for the Arab Spring countries. The degree centrality of the three topics (the extent to which a node is connected to other nodes) is based on tags for Lexis-Nexis news articles. The figure shows that the coverage of protests and demonstrations did not spread geographically, and that the change in relevance of the Internet and social networking did not spread in the same way as the revolutions. SOURCE Courtesy of JOrgen Pfeffer and Kathleen Carley, Carnegie Mellon University

expands the methods available to analysts but also creates a need for new sets of skills (Ribarsky et al., 2009). Many of these methods are highly dependent on the Internet and on graphics systems and standards.

The suite of skills necessary for research and practice in visual analytics includes an ability to program in scripting and numerical computing languages, an understanding of maps and graphics, the ability to think and reason spatially, and knowledge of user-centered design principles. For example, programming or scripting skills are needed to develop visualization tools or to extend existing tools, which are commonly targeted to particular applications. Searching for structure within large volumes of complex, multitheme, and multitemporal data (e.g., big data) requires interdisciplinary skills. Severing (2011) noted the importance of moving beyond specialization



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