FIGURE 4.1 Number of instructional programs that potentially provide knowledge and skills that are relevant to the core and emerging areas. SOURCE: Data from the National Center for Education Statistics’ Classification of Instructional Programs, <http://nces.>.

that human geography, as defined in this report, is an emerging area.

A more realistic “upper bound” on the number of graduates was determined by focusing on the 109 instructional programs considered by the committee to be highly relevant to the core and emerging areas.

Figure 4.2 shows the number of bachelor’s, master’s, and doctorate degrees conferred in 2009 in highly relevant fields of study (see also Table C.4 in Appendix C). For each of the core and emerging areas, a few instructional programs produce more than 50 percent of graduates (Table C.6):

• geodesy and geophysics: aerospace, aeronautical and astronautical engineering;

• photogrammetry: surveying engineering;

• remote sensing: mathematics, general;

• cartography: geography; graphic design;

• GIS and geospatial analysis: geography;

• GEOINT fusion: information science/studies; information technology; environmental studies; environmental science;

• crowdsourcing: information technology; statistics, general;

• human geogmphy: political science and government, general; history, general; sociology;

• visual analytics: information science/studies; graphic design; and

• forecasting: political science and government, general; sociology.

The instructional programs that produce the bulk of graduates do not always match the programs that provide the bulk of skills needed for a position in a core or emerging area (e.g., see Tables A.1A.10, Appendix A). The mismatch is greatest in remote sensing, geodesy and geophysics, human geography, and forecasting.

Figure 4.2 shows that more than three-quarters of the degrees were at the bachelor’s level and about 18 percent were at the master’s level. The mix of degrees conferred varied among the core and emerging areas, with a larger fraction of bachelor’s degrees in fields highly relevant to cartography, human geography, and forecasting; a larger fraction of master’s degrees in

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